Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7077-7099; doi:10.3390/ijms12107077
Review

Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

1
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 4,*
Received: 15 August 2011; Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [261 KB, updated 19 June 2014; original version uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies.
Keywords: angiogenesis; biomarkers; imaging techniques; vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenesis; biomarkers; imaging techniques; vascular endothelial growth factor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Pircher, A.; Hilbe, W.; Heidegger, I.; Drevs, J.; Tichelli, A.; Medinger, M. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7077-7099.

AMA Style

Pircher A, Hilbe W, Heidegger I, Drevs J, Tichelli A, Medinger M. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(10):7077-7099.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pircher, Andreas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Heidegger, Isabel; Drevs, Joachim; Tichelli, André; Medinger, Michael. 2011. "Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 10: 7077-7099.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert