Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7077-7099; doi:10.3390/ijms12107077
Review

Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

1 Hematology and Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 2 Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Urology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 3 Tumor Center Unisantus, Custodisstrasse 3-17, 50679 Köln, Germany 4 Hematology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2011; Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
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Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies.
Keywords: angiogenesis; biomarkers; imaging techniques; vascular endothelial growth factor

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pircher, A.; Hilbe, W.; Heidegger, I.; Drevs, J.; Tichelli, A.; Medinger, M. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7077-7099.

AMA Style

Pircher A, Hilbe W, Heidegger I, Drevs J, Tichelli A, Medinger M. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(10):7077-7099.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pircher, Andreas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Heidegger, Isabel; Drevs, Joachim; Tichelli, André; Medinger, Michael. 2011. "Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 10: 7077-7099.

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