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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7510-7528; doi:10.3390/ijms12117510
Article

The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Abstract

Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; (ii) the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii) the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.
Keywords: RAW264.7; macrophage activation; PUFA; IL-1β; IL-6; IL-10; TNF-α; CD86; MyD88; lysozyme RAW264.7; macrophage activation; PUFA; IL-1β; IL-6; IL-10; TNF-α; CD86; MyD88; lysozyme
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Schoeniger, A.; Adolph, S.; Fuhrmann, H.; Schumann, J. The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7510-7528.

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