Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7495-7509; doi:10.3390/ijms12117495
Review

Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

1 The Tohkai Cytopathology Institute: Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285, Japan 2 Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan 3 School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Midorimachi, Bunkyodai, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan 4 Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan 5 Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 August 2011; in revised form: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Abstract: Conjugated fatty acids (CFA) have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1%) in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid). Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.
Keywords: CLN; CLA; plant seed oils; cancer chemoprevention; PPARγ; p53

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanaka, T.; Hosokawa, M.; Yasui, Y.; Ishigamori, R.; Miyashita, K. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 7495-7509.

AMA Style

Tanaka T, Hosokawa M, Yasui Y, Ishigamori R, Miyashita K. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(11):7495-7509.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanaka, Takuji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Yasui, Yumiko; Ishigamori, Rikako; Miyashita, Kazuo. 2011. "Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7495-7509.

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