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Special Issue "Advances in Nutraceutical Research"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. A. Venket Rao

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, FitzGerald Building, Room 315, 150 College Street, Toronto ON, M5S 3E2, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 416 978 5882

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutraceutical was a term coined by the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine in 1989 to describe substances that could be used as foods or as part of foods, having health benefits including the prevention and treatment of diseases. It has now progressed from being a mere concept representing an area within biomedical research, to a multibillion dollar industry with a very bright future ahead. The range of products within nutraceuticals is broad and diverse including individual nutrients and biologically active phytochemicals, supplements, "functional" foods, and herbal products. However, there are several issues that still need to be addressed including future research directions, clinical evidence in support of the health claims, regulatory aspects, and product identity and standardization. Additionally, a clear understanding of the mechanisms of action of the nutraceuticals is essential in advancing their use in a safe and efficacious way. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is now dedicating a special issue "Advances in Nutraceutical Research' with the aim of publishing peer reviewed and up-to-date original research and review articles in this important area of nutrition and public health.  Target audiences of this special issue will include a full spectrum of stake holders representing research scientists, government agencies involved in developing regulatory guide lines, industrial scientists and management personnel, health professionals and consumer groups. In an effort to meet our goal, we invite submission of manuscripts that will be peer reviewed and published as part of the special issue. Through this initiative we hope to keep our readers up-to-date in all fields relating to nutraceuticals and advance our knowledge in this important area.

Prof. Dr. A. Venketeshwer Rao
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • nutraceuticals
  • functional foods
  • functional ingredients
  • dietary supplements
  • health and nutritional supplements
  • biologically active phyto and zoo-chemicals
  • medicinal and health foods

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Major Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity and Antidiabetic Potential of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) in China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 2707-2716; doi:10.3390/ijms13032707
Received: 1 November 2011 / Revised: 1 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in edible beans as nutraceuticals is increasing. In the present study, the individual phenolic acids, the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), and the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of 13 varieties of rice beans from China were investigated. Eight
[...] Read more.
Interest in edible beans as nutraceuticals is increasing. In the present study, the individual phenolic acids, the total phenolic content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC), and the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of 13 varieties of rice beans from China were investigated. Eight phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vitexin, isovitexin, sinapic acid, quercetin) were analyzed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) system. The rice bean varieties had significant differences in total phenolic compounds (ranging from 123.09 ± 10.35 to 843.75 ± 30.15 μg/g), in TPC (ranging from 3.27 ± 0.04 to 6.43 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), in TFC (ranging from 55.95 ± 11.16 to 320.39 ± 31.77 mg catechin (CE)/g), in antioxidant activity (ranging from 39.87 ± 1.37 to 46.40 ± 2.18 μM·TE/g), in α-glucosidase inhibition activity (ranging from 44.32 ± 2.12 to 68.71 ± 2.19) and in advanced glycation end products formation inhibition activity (ranging from 34.11 ± 0.59 to 75.75 ± 0.33). This study is the first report on phytochemistry and biological activities in rice beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Red Ginseng Essential Oil in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells and CCl4-Treated Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2314-2330; doi:10.3390/ijms13022314
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms of red ginseng essential oil (REO) in cells as well as in an animal model. REO was prepared by a supercritical CO2 extraction of waste-products generated after hot water extraction of red ginseng. In HepG2 cells, REO diminished the H2O2-mediated oxidative stress and also restored both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Administration of REO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38. In mice, the CCl4-mediated elevation of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the induction of hepatic lipid peroxidation were decreased by REO administration. REO treatments also resulted in up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme expression in the liver. Moreover, increased phosphorylations of MAPKs were inhibited after REO administration. Overall, REO seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the activation and induction of antioxidant enzymes via inhibition of MAPKs pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Development of an Innovative Nutraceutical Fermented Beverage from Herbal Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Extract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 788-800; doi:10.3390/ijms13010788
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 31 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 13 January 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract
[...] Read more.
Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 801-818; doi:10.3390/ijms13010801
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 30 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 13 January 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles
[...] Read more.
Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1–F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 651-664; doi:10.3390/ijms13010651
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 4 January 2012 / Published: 10 January 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities.
[...] Read more.
Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 286-301; doi:10.3390/ijms13010286
Received: 6 October 2011 / Revised: 4 December 2011 / Accepted: 14 December 2011 / Published: 27 December 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of
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Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Solubility Enhancement of Steviol Glycosides and Characterization of Their Inclusion Complexes with Gamma-Cyclodextrin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7529-7553; doi:10.3390/ijms12117529
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Steviol glycosidesrebaudioside (reb) A, C and D have low aqueous solubilities. To improve their aqueous solubilities, inclusion complex of steviol glycosides, reb A, C and D and gamma cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method and further characterized by means of differential scanning
[...] Read more.
Steviol glycosidesrebaudioside (reb) A, C and D have low aqueous solubilities. To improve their aqueous solubilities, inclusion complex of steviol glycosides, reb A, C and D and gamma cyclodextrin were prepared by freeze drying method and further characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of gamma cyclodextrin on chemical shifts of the steviol glycosides was also studied in proton NMR experiments as well as in solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR experiments. These results indicated that the steviol glycosides were clearly in inclusion complex formation with the gamma cyclodextrin which also results in solubility enhancement of these steviol glycosides. Phase solubility studies showed that amounts of soluble reb A, C and D increased with increasing amounts of gamma cyclodextrin indicating formation of 1:1 stoichiometric and higher order inclusion complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7510-7528; doi:10.3390/ijms12117510
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage
[...] Read more.
Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; (ii) the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii) the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6685-6702; doi:10.3390/ijms12106685
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of in vitro antioxidant activities. The p p p
[...] Read more.
Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of < 1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The < 1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of < 1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties of the Plant-Based Supplement Greens+
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 4896-4908; doi:10.3390/ijms12084896
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary antioxidants play an important role against oxidation, an underlying mechanism in the incidence of chronic diseases. Greens+ is a commercially available preparation containing a variety of plant-derived ingredients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the
[...] Read more.
Dietary antioxidants play an important role against oxidation, an underlying mechanism in the incidence of chronic diseases. Greens+ is a commercially available preparation containing a variety of plant-derived ingredients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extract of greens+ powder using in vitro and in vivo techniques. In vitro studies were conducted using a liposome model system to simulate biological cell membranes. Total antioxidant potential and polyphenol content of the herbal preparation was measured. For in vivo analysis, 10 healthy human subjects consumed either three or six teaspoons of greens+ per day for four weeks. Blood samples were analyzed at baseline and at the conclusion of the treatment period for total antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, protein, lipid and LDL oxidation, and the level of glutathione peroxidase. Results showed that greens+ supplementation was well tolerated and increased serum antioxidant potential at higher levels of intake in a dose-dependent manner. HPLC analysis showed the presence of quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin in the supplement. Plasma analysis indicated the presence of kaempferol only. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in protein and lipid oxidation was observed. Based on its antioxidant properties, the results suggest that greens+ might play a role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases involving a burden of oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) Fruit
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(2), 1359-1370; doi:10.3390/ijms12021359
Received: 24 January 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 23 February 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The entrocytes of the small intestine can only absorb monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose from our diet. The intestinal absorption of dietary carbohydrates such as maltose and sucrose is carried out by a group of a-glucosidases. Inhibition of these enzymes can significantly
[...] Read more.
The entrocytes of the small intestine can only absorb monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose from our diet. The intestinal absorption of dietary carbohydrates such as maltose and sucrose is carried out by a group of a-glucosidases. Inhibition of these enzymes can significantly decrease the postprandial increase of blood glucose level after a mixed carbohydrate diet. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) extract against rat intestinal a-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic a-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro inhibitory activities of water extract of Omija pulp/skin (OPE) on a-glucosidase and a-amylase were potent when compared to Omija seeds extract (OSE). The postprandial blood glucose lowering effect of Omija extracts was compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong a-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, OPE significantly reduced the blood glucose increase after sucrose loading. Furthermore, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of OSE and OPE was evaluated. OPE had higher peroxyl radical absorbing activity than OSE. These results suggest that Omija, which has high ORAC value with a-glucosidase inhibitory activity and blood glucose lowering effect, could be physiologically useful for treatment of diabetes, although clinical trials are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(2), 1066-1080; doi:10.3390/ijms12021066
Received: 8 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 2 February 2011 / Published: 8 February 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile
[...] Read more.
Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Development of On-Line High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Biochemical Detection Methods as Tools in the Identification of Bioactives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3101-3133; doi:10.3390/ijms13033101
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation
[...] Read more.
Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessReview Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 579-595; doi:10.3390/ijms13010579
Received: 28 November 2011 / Revised: 20 December 2011 / Accepted: 27 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the
[...] Read more.
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessReview Fernblock, a Nutriceutical with Photoprotective Properties and Potential Preventive Agent for Skin Photoaging and Photoinduced Skin Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(12), 8466-8475; doi:10.3390/ijms12128466
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 29 November 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption
[...] Read more.
Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessReview Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7495-7509; doi:10.3390/ijms12117495
Received: 19 August 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 25 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conjugated fatty acids (CFA) have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of
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Conjugated fatty acids (CFA) have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1%) in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN) are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid). Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)

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