Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 334-352; doi:10.3390/ijms12010334
Review

The Role of Reactive-Oxygen-Species in Microbial Persistence and Inflammation

1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 4 November 2010; in revised form: 19 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 13 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Recognition)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The mechanisms of chronic infections caused by opportunistic pathogens are of keen interest to both researchers and health professionals globally. Typically, chronic infectious disease can be characterized by an elevation in immune response, a process that can often lead to further destruction. Reactive-Oxygen-Species (ROS) have been strongly implicated in the aforementioned detrimental response by host that results in self-damage. Unlike excessive ROS production resulting in robust cellular death typically induced by acute infection or inflammation, lower levels of ROS produced by host cells are increasingly recognized to play a critical physiological role for regulating a variety of homeostatic cellular functions including growth, apoptosis, immune response, and microbial colonization. Sources of cellular ROS stimulation can include “danger-signal-molecules” such as extracellular ATP (eATP) released by stressed, infected, or dying cells. Particularly, eATP-P2X7 receptor mediated ROS production has been lately found to be a key modulator for controlling chronic infection and inflammation. There is growing evidence that persistent microbes can alter host cell ROS production and modulate eATP-induced ROS for maintaining long-term carriage. Though these processes have yet to be fully understood, exploring potential positive traits of these “injurious” molecules could illuminate how opportunistic pathogens maintain persistence through physiological regulation of ROS signaling.
Keywords: reactive-oxygen-species; opportunistic pathogens; microbial persistence; extracellular ATP; P2X7 receptor; Porphyromonas gingivalis; NLRX1; NADPH oxidase; epithelium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spooner, R.; Yilmaz, Ö. The Role of Reactive-Oxygen-Species in Microbial Persistence and Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 334-352.

AMA Style

Spooner R, Yilmaz Ö. The Role of Reactive-Oxygen-Species in Microbial Persistence and Inflammation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(1):334-352.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spooner, Ralee; Yilmaz, Özlem. 2011. "The Role of Reactive-Oxygen-Species in Microbial Persistence and Inflammation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 1: 334-352.


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