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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 173-225; doi:10.3390/ijms12010173
Review

Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

1,2,* , 3
 and 4
1 Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, 115 South 1460 East, Room 383, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA 3 The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904, Israel 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2010 / Revised: 1 December 2010 / Accepted: 15 December 2010 / Published: 5 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cells)

Abstract

This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures.
Keywords: molecular photovoltaics; self-assembly devices; transport in molecular nanoscale systems; polarons in organic media molecular photovoltaics; self-assembly devices; transport in molecular nanoscale systems; polarons in organic media
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Burtman, V.; Zelichonok, A.; Pakoulev, A.V. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 173-225.

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