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Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants
Microbial Cell Factory Laboratory, Bioresources Technology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
Division of Biosphere Science, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2010; in revised form: 3 December 2010 / Accepted: 10 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
Abstract: Lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs) consist of a hydrophobic fatty acid portion linked to a hydrophilic peptide chain in the molecule. With their complex and diverse structures, LPBSs exhibit various biological activities including surface activity as well as anti-cellular and anti-enzymatic activities. LPBSs are also involved in multi-cellular behaviors such as swarming motility and biofilm formation. Among the bacterial genera, Bacillus (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas (Gram-negative) have received the most attention because they produce a wide range of effective LPBSs that are potentially useful for agricultural, chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The biosynthetic mechanisms and gene regulation systems of LPBSs have been extensively analyzed over the last decade. LPBSs are generally synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner with megaenzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Production of active‑form NRPSs requires not only transcriptional induction and translation but also post‑translational modification and assemblage. The accumulated knowledge reveals the versatility and evolutionary lineage of the NRPSs system. This review provides an overview of the structural and functional diversity of LPBSs and their different biosynthetic mechanisms in Bacillus and Pseudomonas, including both typical and unique systems. Finally, successful genetic engineering of NRPSs for creating novel lipopeptides is also discussed.
Keywords: lipopeptide biosurfactants (LPBSs); nonribosomal peptides; nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs)
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Roongsawang, N.; Washio, K.; Morikawa, M. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 141-172.
Roongsawang N, Washio K, Morikawa M. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(1):141-172.
Roongsawang, Niran; Washio, Kenji; Morikawa, Masaaki. 2011. "Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Lipopeptide Biosurfactants." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 1: 141-172.