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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(9), 3387-3396; doi:10.3390/ijms11093387
Article

Inhibitory Activities of Cyanidin and Its Glycosides and Synergistic Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic α-Amylase

1
, 1
, 1
 and 2,*
Received: 16 August 2010; in revised form: 10 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 20 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract: Cyanidin and its glycosides are naturally dietary pigments which have been indicated as promising candidates to have potential benefits to humans, especially in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. We investigated the structure activity relationships of cyanidin and its glycosides to inhibit intestinal a-glucosidases and pancreatic a-amylase in vitro. The results found that cyanidin and its glycosides are more specific inhibitors of intestinal sucrase than intestinal maltase. Cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were the most potent inhibitors against intestinal sucrase and pancreatic a-amylase with IC50 values of 0.50 ± 0.05 and 0.30 ± 0.01 mM, respectively. Our findings indicate that the structural difference between glucose and galactose at the 3-O-position of cyanidin was an important factor for modulating the inhibition of intestinal sucrase and pancreatic a-amylase. The combination of cyandin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside or cyanidin-3,5-diglucosides with a low concentration of acarbose showed synergistic inhibition on intestinal maltase and sucrase. The synergistic inhibition was also found for a combination of cyanidin or cyanidin-3-glucoside with a low concentration of acarbose. The findings could provide a new insight into a use for the naturally occurring intestinal a-glucosidase and pancreatic a-amylase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Keywords: cyanidin glycosides; intestinal a-glucosidase; pancreatic a-amylase; synergism cyanidin glycosides; intestinal a-glucosidase; pancreatic a-amylase; synergism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akkarachiyasit, S.; Charoenlertkul, P.; Yibchok-anun, S.; Adisakwattana, S. Inhibitory Activities of Cyanidin and Its Glycosides and Synergistic Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic α-Amylase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3387-3396.

AMA Style

Akkarachiyasit S, Charoenlertkul P, Yibchok-anun S, Adisakwattana S. Inhibitory Activities of Cyanidin and Its Glycosides and Synergistic Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic α-Amylase. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(9):3387-3396.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akkarachiyasit, Sarinya; Charoenlertkul, Piyawan; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai. 2010. "Inhibitory Activities of Cyanidin and Its Glycosides and Synergistic Effect with Acarbose against Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic α-Amylase." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 9: 3387-3396.


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