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Paramagnetic Liposome Nanoparticles for Cellular and Tumour Imaging
Department of Chemistry, Imperial College Genetic Therapies Centre, Imperial College London, Flowers Building, Armstrong Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2010; in revised form: 6 April 2010 / Accepted: 8 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
Abstract: In this review we discuss the development of paramagnetic liposomes incorporating MRI contrast agents and show how these are utilized in cellular imaging in vitro. Bi-functional, bi-modal imaging paramagnetic liposome systems are also described. Next we discuss the upgrading of paramagnetic liposomes into bi-modal imaging neutral nanoparticles for in vivo imaging applications. We discuss the development of such systems and show how paramagnetic liposomes and imaging nanoparticles could be developed as platforms for future multi-functional, multi-modal imaging theranostic nanodevices tailor-made for the combined imaging of early stage disease pathology and functional drug delivery.
Keywords: cellular labeling; liposomes; Gadolinium; paramagnetic liposomes; bimodal liposomes; cellular imaging; tumour imaging; MRI; MRI contrast agents; nanoparticles; magnetic nanoparticles
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Kamaly, N.; Miller, A.D. Paramagnetic Liposome Nanoparticles for Cellular and Tumour Imaging. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 1759-1776.
Kamaly N, Miller AD. Paramagnetic Liposome Nanoparticles for Cellular and Tumour Imaging. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(4):1759-1776.
Kamaly, Nazila; Miller, Andrew D. 2010. "Paramagnetic Liposome Nanoparticles for Cellular and Tumour Imaging." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1759-1776.