Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Hypericins as Potential Leads for New Therapeutics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(2), 595-621; doi:10.3390/ijms11020595
Review

The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway

Received: 11 December 2009; in revised form: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 4 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [300 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Flavonoids and biochemically-related chalcones are important secondary metabolites, which are ubiquitously present in plants and therefore also in human food. They fulfill a broad range of physiological functions in planta and there are numerous reports about their physiological relevance for humans. Flavonoids have in common a basic C6-C3-C6 skeleton structure consisting of two aromatic rings (A and B) and a heterocyclic ring (C) containing one oxygen atom, whereas chalcones, as the intermediates in the formation of flavonoids, have not yet established the heterocyclic C-ring. Flavonoids are grouped into eight different classes, according to the oxidative status of the C-ring. The large number of divergent chalcones and flavonoid structures is from the extensive modification of the basic molecules. The hydroxylation pattern influences physiological properties such as light absorption and antioxidative activity, which is the base for many beneficial health effects of flavonoids. In some cases antiinfective properties are also effected.
Keywords: plant; flavonoid; chalcone; hydroxylation; cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase; 2-oxoglutarate-Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase; oxidoreductase plant; flavonoid; chalcone; hydroxylation; cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase; 2-oxoglutarate-Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase; oxidoreductase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Halbwirth, H. The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 595-621.

AMA Style

Halbwirth H. The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(2):595-621.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Halbwirth, Heidi. 2010. "The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 2: 595-621.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert