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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(2), 595-621; doi:10.3390/ijms11020595

The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway

Institut für Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und Technische Biowissenschaften, Technische Universität Wien, Getreidemarkt 9/1665, A-1060 Wien, Austria
Received: 11 December 2009 / Revised: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 4 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Abstract

Flavonoids and biochemically-related chalcones are important secondary metabolites, which are ubiquitously present in plants and therefore also in human food. They fulfill a broad range of physiological functions in planta and there are numerous reports about their physiological relevance for humans. Flavonoids have in common a basic C6-C3-C6 skeleton structure consisting of two aromatic rings (A and B) and a heterocyclic ring (C) containing one oxygen atom, whereas chalcones, as the intermediates in the formation of flavonoids, have not yet established the heterocyclic C-ring. Flavonoids are grouped into eight different classes, according to the oxidative status of the C-ring. The large number of divergent chalcones and flavonoid structures is from the extensive modification of the basic molecules. The hydroxylation pattern influences physiological properties such as light absorption and antioxidative activity, which is the base for many beneficial health effects of flavonoids. In some cases antiinfective properties are also effected.
Keywords: plant; flavonoid; chalcone; hydroxylation; cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase; 2-oxoglutarate-Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase; oxidoreductase plant; flavonoid; chalcone; hydroxylation; cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase; 2-oxoglutarate-Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase; oxidoreductase
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Halbwirth, H. The Creation and Physiological Relevance of Divergent Hydroxylation Patterns in the Flavonoid Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 595-621.

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