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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(12), 5109-5119; doi:10.3390/ijms11125109
Article

Astaxanthin Improves Stem Cell Potency via an Increase in the Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells

1
, 1,2,3,* , 1,3,4
, 1,2,3
, 1,2,3
, 5
 and 1,3,6,*
1 Department of Biomaterial Control, Dong-Eui University, Busan, 614-714, Korea 2 Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714, Korea 3 Department of Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714, Korea 4 Department of Life Science & Biotechnology, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714, Korea 5 Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 361-763, Korea 6 Department of Biochemistry and Research Institute of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Eui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-052, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2010 / Revised: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinorganic Chemistry)
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Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the question of whether or not astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of NPCs. For identification of possible activated signaling molecules involved in active cell proliferation occurring after astaxanthin treatment, total protein levels of several proliferation-related proteins, and expression levels of proliferation-related transcription factors, were assessed in NPCs. In Western blot analysis, astaxanthin induced significant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream mediators in a time‑dependent manner. Results of RT-PCR analysis showed upregulation of proliferation‑related transcription factors and stemness genes. To estimate the relevance of PI3K and mitogen-activated protein, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathways in cell growth of astaxanthin‑treated NPCs, inhibition assays were performed with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, and PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, respectively. These results clearly showed that astaxanthin induces proliferation of NPCs via activation of the PI3K and MEK signaling pathways and improves stem cell potency via stemness acting signals.
Keywords: astaxanthin; neural progenitor cells; PI3K; proliferation; stem cell astaxanthin; neural progenitor cells; PI3K; proliferation; stem cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.-H.; Nam, S.-W.; Kim, B.-W.; Choi, W.; Lee, J.-H.; Kim, W.-J.; Choi, Y.-H. Astaxanthin Improves Stem Cell Potency via an Increase in the Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 5109-5119.

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