Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 1999-2009; doi:10.3390/ijms10051999

Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues

1, 1,* email, 2email, 1email, 3email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 1email
Received: 11 March 2009; in revised form: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 28 April 2009 / Published: 29 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Prior to the emergence of life, it is believed that only L-amino acids were selected for formation of protein and that D-amino acids were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Whilst homochirality is essential for life, the occurrence of proteins containing D-β-aspartyl (Asp) residues in various tissues from elderly subjects has been reported recently. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a D-β-Asp-containing protein in the cardiac muscle of heart, blood vessels of the lung, chief cells of the stomach, longitudinal and circular muscle of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Since the D-β-Asp residue occurs through a succinimide intermediate, this isomer may potentially be generated in proteins more easily than initially thought. Formation of the D-β-Asp residue in proteins may be related to stress.
Keywords: D-β-Aspartyl residue; racemization; immunohistochemistry; isomerization; stomach; heart; lung; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Motoie, R.; Fujii, N.; Tsunoda, S.; Nagata, K.; Shimo-oka, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Fujii, N.; Saito, T.; Ono, K. Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1999-2009.

AMA Style

Motoie R, Fujii N, Tsunoda S, Nagata K, Shimo-oka T, Kinouchi T, Fujii N, Saito T, Ono K. Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(5):1999-2009.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motoie, Ryota; Fujii, Noriko; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Nagata, Kenji; Shimo-oka, Tadashi; Kinouchi, Tadatoshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Saito, Takeshi; Ono, Koji. 2009. "Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 5: 1999-2009.

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