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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(5), 1999-2009; doi:10.3390/ijms10051999

Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues

1, 1,* , 2
1 Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494, Japan 2 Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan 3 Life Science Center, Asahi Techno Glass Corp, Funabashi, Chiba 273-0044, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2009 / Revised: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 28 April 2009 / Published: 29 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life)
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Prior to the emergence of life, it is believed that only L-amino acids were selected for formation of protein and that D-amino acids were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Whilst homochirality is essential for life, the occurrence of proteins containing D-β-aspartyl (Asp) residues in various tissues from elderly subjects has been reported recently. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a D-β-Asp-containing protein in the cardiac muscle of heart, blood vessels of the lung, chief cells of the stomach, longitudinal and circular muscle of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Since the D-β-Asp residue occurs through a succinimide intermediate, this isomer may potentially be generated in proteins more easily than initially thought. Formation of the D-β-Asp residue in proteins may be related to stress.
Keywords: D-β-Aspartyl residue; racemization; immunohistochemistry; isomerization; stomach; heart; lung; oxidative stress D-β-Aspartyl residue; racemization; immunohistochemistry; isomerization; stomach; heart; lung; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Motoie, R.; Fujii, N.; Tsunoda, S.; Nagata, K.; Shimo-oka, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Fujii, N.; Saito, T.; Ono, K. Localization of D-β-Aspartyl Residue-Containing Proteins in Various Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1999-2009.

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