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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5350-5369; doi:10.3390/ijms10125350
Review

Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

1,* , 2
 and 2
Received: 17 November 2009; in revised form: 10 December 2009 / Accepted: 14 December 2009 / Published: 15 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Abstract: Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.
Keywords: anthocyanin; flavonoid; flower colour; genetic engineering; genetically modified organism (GMO) anthocyanin; flavonoid; flower colour; genetic engineering; genetically modified organism (GMO)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanaka, Y.; Brugliera, F.; Chandler, S. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5350-5369.

AMA Style

Tanaka Y, Brugliera F, Chandler S. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5350-5369.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa; Chandler, Steve. 2009. "Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5350-5369.



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