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ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes
Centre for Applied Biomedical Engineering Research (CABER), Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, and Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2009; in revised form: 7 September 2009 / Accepted: 30 September 2009 / Published: 12 October 2009
Abstract: The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM) have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment.
Keywords: vascular graft; extracellular matrix; healing; native regenerative processes
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Piterina, A.V.; Cloonan, A.J.; Meaney, C.L.; Davis, L.M.; Callanan, A.; Walsh, M.T.; McGloughlin, T.M. ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4375-4417.
Piterina AV, Cloonan AJ, Meaney CL, Davis LM, Callanan A, Walsh MT, McGloughlin TM. ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(10):4375-4417.
Piterina, Anna V.; Cloonan, Aidan J.; Meaney, Claire L.; Davis, Laura M.; Callanan, Anthony; Walsh, Michael T.; McGloughlin, Tim M. 2009. "ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 10: 4375-4417.