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Biologically Relevant Heterocyclic Compounds
Molecules 2004, 9(3), 40-49; doi:10.3390/90300040
Review

Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

* , ,  and
Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2004 / Accepted: 27 February 2004 / Published: 28 February 2004
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologically Relevant Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Abstract

Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.
Keywords: Cyanine dyes; squarylium dyes; protein; DNA; capillary electrophoresis; fluorescence. Cyanine dyes; squarylium dyes; protein; DNA; capillary electrophoresis; fluorescence.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Patonay, G.; Salon, J.; Sowell, J.; Strekowski, L. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes. Molecules 2004, 9, 40-49.

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