Next Article in Journal
Cytotoxic, Anti-Proliferative and Apoptosis Activity of l-Amino Acid Oxidase from Malaysian Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus (CP-LAAO) Venom on Human Colon Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Correlation of FT-IR Fingerprint and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Salak (Salacca zalacca) Fruit Extracts Utilizing Orthogonal Partial Least Square
Previous Article in Journal
14-3-3: A Case Study in PPI Modulation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Neuroprotective Lead Compound Ligustrazine Derivative Mass Spectrometry Fragmentation Rule and Metabolites in Rats by LC/LTQ-Orbitrap MS
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061387

An Overview of Biotransformation and Toxicity of Diterpenes

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040903, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018

Abstract

Diterpenes have been identified as active compounds in several medicinal plants showing remarkable biological activities, and some isolated diterpenes are produced at commercial scale to be used as medicines, food additives, in the synthesis of fragrances, or in agriculture. There is great interest in developing methods to obtain derivatives of these compounds, and biotransformation processes are interesting tools for the structural modification of natural products with complex chemical structures. Biotransformation processes also have a crucial role in drug development and/or optimization. The understanding of the metabolic pathways for both phase I and II biotransformation of new drug candidates is mandatory for toxicity and efficacy evaluation and part of preclinical studies. This review presents an overview of biotransformation processes of diterpenes carried out by microorganisms, plant cell cultures, animal and human liver microsomes, and rats, chickens, and swine in vivo and highlights the main enzymatic reactions involved in these processes and the role of diterpenes that may be effectively exploited by other fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: diterpenes; biotransformation; toxicity diterpenes; biotransformation; toxicity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

de Sousa, I.P.; Sousa Teixeira, M.V.; Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, N.A. An Overview of Biotransformation and Toxicity of Diterpenes. Molecules 2018, 23, 1387.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top