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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061308

The Effect of Light Exposure at Night (LAN) on Carcinogenesis via Decreased Nocturnal Melatonin Synthesis

1
Epidemiology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
2
Experimental Pharmacology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
3
Division of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
4
Department of Medicine Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, 84081 Salerno, Italy
5
Abdominal Surgical Oncology and Hepatobiliary Unit, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
6
Department of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Unit, IRCCS, Cancer Referral Center of Basilicata, 85028 Rionero in Vulture, Italy
7
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM), 80055 Portici, Napoli, Italy
8
Pathology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dun-Xian Tan
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [508 KB, uploaded 29 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

In mammals, a master clock is located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a region that receives input from the retina that is transmitted by the retinohypothalamic tract. The SCN controls the nocturnal synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland that can influence the activity of the clock’s genes and be involved in the inhibition of cancer development. On the other hand, in the literature, some papers highlight that artificial light exposure at night (LAN)-induced circadian disruptions promote cancer. In the present review, we summarize the potential mechanisms by which LAN-evoked disruption of the nocturnal increase in melatonin synthesis counteracts its preventive action on human cancer development and progression. In detail, we discuss: (i) the Warburg effect related to tumor metabolism modification; (ii) genomic instability associated with L1 activity; and (iii) regulation of immunity, including regulatory T cell (Treg) regulation and activity. A better understanding of these processes could significantly contribute to new treatment and prevention strategies against hormone-related cancer types. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; circadian rhythms; cancer melatonin; circadian rhythms; cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Giudice, A.; Crispo, A.; Grimaldi, M.; Polo, A.; Bimonte, S.; Capunzo, M.; Amore, A.; D’Arena, G.; Cerino, P.; Budillon, A.; Botti, G.; Costantini, S.; Montella, M. The Effect of Light Exposure at Night (LAN) on Carcinogenesis via Decreased Nocturnal Melatonin Synthesis. Molecules 2018, 23, 1308.

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