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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051163

Comparative in Silico Analysis of Ferric Reduction Oxidase (FRO) Genes Expression Patterns in Response to Abiotic Stresses, Metal and Hormone Applications

1
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract

The ferric reduction oxidase (FRO) gene family is involved in various biological processes widely found in plants and may play an essential role in metal homeostasis, tolerance and intricate signaling networks in response to a number of abiotic stresses. Our study describes the identification, characterization and evolutionary relationships of FRO genes families. Here, total 50 FRO genes in Plantae and 15 ‘FRO like’ genes in non-Plantae were retrieved from 16 different species. The entire FRO genes have been divided into seven clades according to close similarity in biological and functional behavior. Three conserved domains were common in FRO genes while in two FROs sub genome have an extra NADPH-Ox domain, separating the function of plant FROs. OsFRO1 and OsFRO7 genes were expressed constitutively in rice plant. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsFRO1 was high in flag leaf, and OsFRO7 gene expression was maximum in leaf blade and flag leaf. Both genes showed vigorous expressions level in response to different abiotic and hormones treatments. Moreover, the expression of both genes was also substantial under heavy metal stresses. OsFRO1 gene expression was triggered following 6 h under Zn, Pb, Co and Ni treatments, whereas OsFRO7 gene expression under Fe, Pb and Ni after 12 h, Zn and Cr after 6 h, and Mn and Co after 3 h treatments. These findings suggest the possible involvement of both the genes under abiotic and metal stress and the regulation of phytohormones. Therefore, our current work may provide the foundation for further functional characterization of rice FRO genes family. View Full-Text
Keywords: FRO; ferric reduction oxidase; evolutionary relationship; gene expression; abiotic and metals stresses FRO; ferric reduction oxidase; evolutionary relationship; gene expression; abiotic and metals stresses
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Muhammad, I.; Jing, X.-Q.; Shalmani, A.; Ali, M.; Yi, S.; Gan, P.-F.; Li, W.-Q.; Liu, W.-T.; Chen, K.-M. Comparative in Silico Analysis of Ferric Reduction Oxidase (FRO) Genes Expression Patterns in Response to Abiotic Stresses, Metal and Hormone Applications. Molecules 2018, 23, 1163.

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