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Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051116

Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Abstract

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In this study the activity of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils (EOs) distributed by Pollena Aroma (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Poland) was investigated against a group of 183 clinical isolates of C. albicans and 76 isolates of C. glabrata. All of the oils exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activity toward C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. The highest activity was observed for cinnamon oil, with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values in the range 0.002–0.125% (v/v). The MIC values of the rest of the oils were in the range 0.005% (or less) to 2.5% (v/v). In most cases MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration) values were equal to MIC or twice as high. Additionally, we examined the mode of action of selected EOs. The effect on cell wall components could not be clearly proved. Three of the tested EOs (thyme, lemon, and clove) affected cell membranes. At the same time, thyme, cinnamon, and clove oil influenced potassium ion efflux, which was not seen in the case of lemon oil. All of the tested oils demonstrated the ability to inhibit the transition of yeast to mycelium form, but the effect was the lowest in the case of cinnamon oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-Candida activity; essential oils; modes of action; synergism; GC × GC MS analysis anti-Candida activity; essential oils; modes of action; synergism; GC × GC MS analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gucwa, K.; Milewski, S.; Dymerski, T.; Szweda, P. Investigation of the Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimum basilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus Essential Oils. Molecules 2018, 23, 1116.

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