Next Article in Journal
The Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Two Lancea Species with Comparative Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Trifluoromethylcoumarinyl Urea Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Fluorescence, and Bioactivity
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030601

Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

1
Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden
2
CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 70040-020, Brazil
3
Department of Immunology, Genetic and Pathology, Uppsala University, Rudbeck Laboratory C5, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2908 KB, uploaded 7 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfonated beads; Cladophora nanocellulose; hemocompatibility; coagulation; complement system sulfonated beads; Cladophora nanocellulose; hemocompatibility; coagulation; complement system
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rocha, I.; Lindh, J.; Hong, J.; Strømme, M.; Mihranyan, A.; Ferraz, N. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads. Molecules 2018, 23, 601.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top