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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 332; doi:10.3390/molecules23020332

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Melittin on Porphyromonas Gingivalis LPS-Stimulated Human Keratinocytes

1
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu 42472, Korea
2
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju-si 38066, Korea
3
Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, 300, Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Wansan-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to the destruction of the gingiva. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) can cause periodontitis via its pathogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the role of melittin in the inflammatory response has not been elucidated in periodontitis-like human keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin on a P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-treated HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The cytotoxicity of melittin was measured using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, and a Cell Counting Kit-8. The effect of melittin on PgLPS-induced inflammation was determined with Western blot, real-time quantitative PCT, and immunofluorescence. PgLPS increased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Moreover, PgLPS induced activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B/Akt. Melittin also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, ERK, and Akt. Melittin attenuates the PgLPS-induced inflammatory response and could therefore be applied in the treatment of periodontitis for anti-inflammatory effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: keratinocytes; lipopolysaccharides; melittin; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis keratinocytes; lipopolysaccharides; melittin; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, W.-H.; An, H.-J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Gwon, M.-G.; Gu, H.; Jeon, M.; Kim, M.-K.; Han, S.-M.; Park, K.-K. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Melittin on Porphyromonas Gingivalis LPS-Stimulated Human Keratinocytes. Molecules 2018, 23, 332.

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