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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 21; doi:10.3390/molecules23010021

The Antioxidant and Safety Properties of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts Impacted by the Combined Hot Pressurized Liquid Extraction–Resin Purification Process

1
Programa Institucional de Fomento a la Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Ignacio Valdivieso 2409, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago 8940577, Chile
2
Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, P.O. Box 306, Santiago 7820436, Chile
3
Escuela de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Universidad Nacional de Moquegua, Prolongación calle Ancash s/n, Moquegua 18001, Peru
4
Departamento de Química, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Las Palmeras 3360, P.O. Box 9845, Santiago 7800003, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract

Hot pressurized liquid extraction has been used to obtain polyphenols; however, its operating conditions can generate hydroxymethylfurfural, a potential human carcinogen. The addition of ethanol can reduce process temperatures and retain extraction efficiencies, but the ethanol may reduce the recovery of polyphenols in the subsequent purification stage, affecting the antioxidant properties of the extracts. This study evaluates a combined hot pressurized liquid extraction—resin purification process to obtain polyphenol extracts from spent ground coffee reduced in hydroxymethylfurfural. A multifactorial design was developed to determine the combined effect of the extraction (ethanol content: 0–16% and temperature: 60–90 °C) and purification (ethanol: 60–80%) conditions on some chemical properties of the extracts. The highest recovery of polyphenols (~8 mg GAE/g dry coffee solids) and reduction of hydroxymethylfurfural (95%) were obtained at 90 °C and 16% of ethanol during extraction and 80% of ethanol during purification. These operating conditions retained the antioxidant capacity of the crude extract between 60% and 88% depending on the determination method and recovered 90, 98, and 100% of 4-feruloylquinic acid, epicatechin, and 5-feruloylquinic acid, respectively after purification. The combined process allows differential polyphenols’ recovery and enhances the safety of the extracts. Our computational chemistry results ruled out that the overall selectivity of the integrated process was correlated with the size of the polyphenols. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; hydroxymethylfurfural; feruloylquinic acid; epicatechin polyphenols; hydroxymethylfurfural; feruloylquinic acid; epicatechin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mariotti-Celis, M.S.; Martínez-Cifuentes, M.; Huamán-Castilla, N.; Vargas-González, M.; Pedreschi, F.; Pérez-Correa, J.R. The Antioxidant and Safety Properties of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts Impacted by the Combined Hot Pressurized Liquid Extraction–Resin Purification Process. Molecules 2018, 23, 21.

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