Cool-Climate Red Wines—Chemical Composition and Comparison of Two Protocols for 1H–NMR Analysis
AbstractThis study investigates the metabolome of 26 experimental cool-climate wines made from 22 grape varieties using two different protocols for wine analysis by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H–NMR) spectroscopy. The wine samples were analyzed as-is (wet) and as dried samples. The NMR datasets were preprocessed by alignment and mean centering. No normalization or scaling was performed. The “wet” method preserved the inherent properties of the samples and provided a fast and effective overview of the molecular composition of the wines. The “dried” method yielded a slightly better sensitivity towards a broader range of the compounds present in wines. A total of 27 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and alkaloids were identified in the 1H–NMR spectra of the wine samples. Principal component analysis was performed on both NMR datasets evidencing well-defined molecular fingerprints for ‘Baco Noir’, ‘Bolero’, ‘Cabernet Cantor’, ‘Cabernet Cortis’, ‘Don Muscat’, ‘Eszter’, ‘Golubok’, ‘New York Muscat’, ‘Regent’, ‘Rondo’, ‘Triomphe d’Alsace’, ‘Précose Noir’, and ‘Vinoslivy’ wines. Amongst the identified metabolites, lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, gallic acid, glycerol, and methanol were found to drive sample groupings. The 1H–NMR data was compared to the absolute concentration values obtained from a reference Fourier transform infrared method, evidencing a high correlation. View Full-Text
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Aru, V.; Sørensen, K.M.; Khakimov, B.; Toldam-Andersen, T.B.; Balling Engelsen, S. Cool-Climate Red Wines—Chemical Composition and Comparison of Two Protocols for 1H–NMR Analysis. Molecules 2018, 23, 160.
Aru V, Sørensen KM, Khakimov B, Toldam-Andersen TB, Balling Engelsen S. Cool-Climate Red Wines—Chemical Composition and Comparison of Two Protocols for 1H–NMR Analysis. Molecules. 2018; 23(1):160.Chicago/Turabian Style
Aru, Violetta; Sørensen, Klavs M.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B.; Balling Engelsen, Søren. 2018. "Cool-Climate Red Wines—Chemical Composition and Comparison of Two Protocols for 1H–NMR Analysis." Molecules 23, no. 1: 160.
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