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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010146

α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts

1
Departamento de Química y Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), Loja 1101608, Ecuador
2
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1040, Venezuela
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Abstract

The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae) was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1), squalane (2), uvaol (3), erythrodiol (4), ursolic acid (5), and salvigenin (6). Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents). The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9–23.2%), carvacrol (13.8–16.3%) and, carvacryl acetate (11.4–4.8%). The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 μg/mL respectively), while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 μM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clinopodium taxifolium; ursolic acid; essential oil; Ecuador; Klebsiella pneumoniae; α-glucosidase Clinopodium taxifolium; ursolic acid; essential oil; Ecuador; Klebsiella pneumoniae; α-glucosidase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Morocho, V.; Valle, A.; García, J.; Gilardoni, G.; Cartuche, L.; Suárez, A.I. α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth) Govaerts. Molecules 2018, 23, 146.

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