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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1519; doi:10.3390/molecules22091519

Synthesis of Bisimidazole Derivatives for Selective Sensing of Fluoride Ion

School of Material Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, Jiangsu, China
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Received: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Photochemistry)
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Abstract

Rapid and efficient analysis of fluoride ion is crucial to providing key information for fluoride ion hazard assessment and pollution management. In this study, we synthesized one symmetrical structure called 1,4-bis(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene (1a) and two asymmetrical structures, namely 2-(4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-phenanthro(9,10-d)imidazole (1b) and 2-(4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)phenanthroline (1c), which served as an efficient anion sensor for fluoride ion over a wide range of other anions (Cl, Br, I, NO3, ClO4, HSO4, BF4, and PF6) owing to imidazole group in the main backbone. The absorption intensity of compound 1a at λmax 358 nm slightly decreased; however, a new band at λmax 414 nm appeared upon the addition of fluoride ion, while no evident change occurred upon the addition of eight other anions. The photoluminescence intensity of compound 1a at λmax 426 nm was nearly quenched and fluorescence emission spectra were broadened when fluoride ion was added into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of compound 1a. Compared with the optical behaviors of the DMSO solution of compound 1a in the presence of Bu4N+F, compounds 1b and 1c exhibited considerable sensitivity to fluoride ion due to the increase in coplanarity. Furthermore, compared with the fluorescence emission behaviors of the DMSO solutions of compounds 1a and 1b in the presence of Bu4N+F, compound 1c exhibited the most significant sensitivity to fluoride ion due to the charge transfer enhancement. Consequently, the detection limits of compounds 1a1c increased from 5.47 × 10−6 M to 4.21 × 10−6 M to 9.12 × 10−7 M. Furthermore, the largest red shift (75 nm) of the DMSO solution compound 1c in the presence of fluoride ion can be observed. Our results suggest that the increase in coplanarity and the introduction of electron-withdrawing groups to the imidazole backbone can improve the performance in detecting fluoride ion. View Full-Text
Keywords: imidazole; fluorescene; phenanthroline; fluoride ion; anion sensor imidazole; fluorescene; phenanthroline; fluoride ion; anion sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Liu, F. Synthesis of Bisimidazole Derivatives for Selective Sensing of Fluoride Ion. Molecules 2017, 22, 1519.

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