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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1467; doi:10.3390/molecules22091467

Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells

1
Medicinal Plants Research Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80230, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21523, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21523, Saudi Arabia
5
Pharmacology Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
6
Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
8
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid groups were isolated from Aframomum meleguea seeds and identified as 6-gingerol (1), 6-paradol (2), 8-dehydrogingerdione (3), 8-gingerol (4), dihydro-6-paradol (5), dihydrogingerenone A (6), dihydrogingerenone C (7), 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (8), and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (9). The structures of isolated compounds were established by NMR and mass spectral data, in addition to referring to literature data. Exposure of MCF-7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells to subcytotoxic concentrations of the compounds under investigation resulted in accelerated proliferation. Among them, paradol was selected for further detailed biochemical analysis in SAOS-2 cells. DNA flowcytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that paradol did not induce any significant change in the proliferation index of SAOS-2 cells. Assessment of osteogenic gene expression revealed that paradol enhanced the expression of osteocyte and osteoblast-related genes and inhibited osteoclast and RUNX suppressor genes. Biochemically, paradol enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D content and decreased the osteoporotic marker acid phosphatase. In conclusion, paradol, which is a major constituents of A. melegueta seeds, exhibited potent proliferative and ossification characteristics in bone cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aframomum melegueta; paradol; osteoporosis Aframomum melegueta; paradol; osteoporosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdel-Naim, A.B.; Alghamdi, A.A.; Algandaby, M.M.; Al-Abbasi, F.A.; Al-Abd, A.M.; Abdallah, H.M.; El-Halawany, A.M.; Hattori, M. Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 1467.

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