Next Article in Journal
Voltammetric Study of Some 3-Aryl-quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile 1,4-di-N-oxide Derivatives with Anti-Tumor Activities
Next Article in Special Issue
Diuretic Activity of Compatible Triterpene Components of Alismatis rhizoma
Previous Article in Journal
New Antifeedant Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris formosa
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of a Quality Marker (Q-Marker) of Danhong Injection by the Zebrafish Thrombosis Model
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1437; doi:10.3390/molecules22091437

Article
Alkaloid Constituents of the Amaryllidaceae Plant Amaryllis belladonna L.
Luciana R. Tallini 1, Jean Paulo de Andrade 2, Marcel Kaiser 3,4, Francesc Viladomat 1, Jerald J. Nair 1, José Angelo S. Zuanazzi 5Orcid and Jaume Bastida 1,*
1
Departament de Biologia, Sanitat i Medi Ambient, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII 27–31, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Departamento de Química Orgânica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari 845, Victoria 29075-015, Brazil
3
Medicinal Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
4
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4001 Basel, Switzerland
5
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, Porto Alegre 90610-000, Brazil
*
Correspondence: Tel.: +34-934-020-268
Received: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017

Abstract

:
The plant family Amaryllidaceae is well-known for its unique alkaloid constituents, which exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Its representative, Amaryllis belladonna, has a geographical distribution covering mainly southern Africa, where it has significant usage in the traditional medicine of the native people. In this study, A. belladonna samples collected in Brazil were examined for alkaloid content. Alkaloid profiles of A. belladonna bulbs were generated by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, including GC–MS and 2D NMR. In vitro screening against four different parasitic protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum) was carried out using the A. belladonna crude methanol extract, as well as three of its alkaloid isolates. Twenty-six different Amaryllidaceae alkaloids were identified in the A. belladonna bulb samples, and three of them were isolated. Evidence for their respective biosynthetic pathways was afforded via their mass-spectral fragmentation data. Improved data for 1-O-acetylcaranine was provided by 2D NMR experiments, together with new 1H-NMR data for buphanamine. The crude extract and 3-O-acetylhamayne exhibited good antiprotozoal activity in vitro, although both with a high cytotoxic index.
Keywords:
Amaryllis belladonna; Amaryllidaceae; alkaloids; biosynthetic pathways; NMR; MS

1. Introduction

The plant family Amaryllidaceae has attracted considerable attention in view of the fascinating structural features and varied biological activities manifested by its alkaloid principles. Anticancer, antimicrobial and anticholinesterase activities represent some of these biological properties [1]. The genus Amaryllis L. comprises two species, A. belladonna and A. acuminata, both native to southern Africa [2]. Also referred to by the folk names “belladonna-lily” and “naked-lady”, A. belladonna has been used for several centuries in the medicinal traditions of the Sotho, Xhosa and Zulu peoples of South Africa, and in Java for the treatment of “swelling” (a presumed synonym for cancer) [2,3].
The characteristic isoquinoline alkaloids produced by members of the Amaryllidaceae are derived from the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which combine to give the common precursor O-methylnorbelladine [4]. Consequently, alternative ways of oxidative phenolic coupling of this key intermediate metabolite lead to the three main discernible skeleton types that form the basis for further structural diversity in the Amaryllidaceae. The ortho–para´ coupling of O-methylnorbelladine results in the formation of the lycorine-type skeleton, which in turn leads to homolycorine-type compounds. The galanthamine-type skeleton originates from para–ortho´ phenolic oxidative coupling, whilst para–para´ coupling gives the crinine-, haemanthamine-, tazettine-, narciclasine- and montanine-type structures [5].
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) studies of Amaryllidaceae plants show that they contain a quite variable number of alkaloids [6,7]. Each species produces a mixture of alkaloids, often with a few dominant compounds and a larger number of compounds at lower concentrations, which is likely to result from differences in substrate specificity and expression level of the various biosynthetic enzymes [8]. The evolution of the biosynthetic pathways in the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids remains unclear [9]. Most research on Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis was carried out during the 1960s and early 1970s. More recently, there has been notable interest in the biosynthesis of galanthamine and its congeners, given their success as commercial drug targets [10]. In this regard, in 2001, galanthamine was approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for the clinical management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease [11]. Subsequently, there has been widespread interest in the Amaryllidaceae as a source of novel chemotherapeutics [12].
Thirty-one alkaloids have been previously identified in A. belladonna, including 1-O-acetylcaranine, 6-hydroxybuphanisine, 6-hydroxycrinine, 8-demethylmaritidine, 11-hydroxyvittatine, amarbellisine, amaryllidine, amaryllisine, ambelline, anhydrolycorinone, anhydrolycorinium, belladine, bellamarine, buphanamine, caranine, crinine, galanthamine, galanthine, hippadine, hippeastrine, ismine, lycorenine, lycorine, pancracine, parkacine, parkamine, powelline, pratorimine, pratosine, undulatine and vittatine [2,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21]. Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-neoplastic effects are associated with some of the alkaloids isolated from A. belladonna [2,20].
Protozoal diseases such as leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and malaria are still the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide, with a significant social and economic impact [22]. In many cases, contemporary chemotherapeutic regimens are not satisfactory due to a lack of effectiveness as well as the toxicity associated with long-term treatment. Furthermore, the emergence of global drug resistance has necessitated the development of new anti-parasitological drugs [23,24].
The aim of this work was to perform a detailed study of the alkaloid constituents of A. belladonna utilizing spectroscopic and chromatographic methods, including GC–MS and NMR. In this way, twenty-six alkaloids were identified and evidence presented for their respective biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, a comprehensive NMR study of 1-O-acetylcaranine is presented, together with new 1H-NMR data of buphanamine. Finally, anti-parasitological activities of the crude extract and three isolated alkaloids from A. belladonna are reported for the first time.

2. Results and Discussion

2.1. Alkaloids Identified in A. belladonna by GC–MS

The structural types of the alkaloids from A. belladonna were identified by comparing their GC–MS spectra and Kovats retention index (RI) values with those of authentic Amaryllidaceae alkaloids previously isolated and identified by spectrometric methods as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and mass spectrometry (MS) in our laboratory. The NIST 05 Database and literature data were also used (Table 1). The MS spectra were deconvoluted by AMDIS 2.64 software (NIST).
Fourteen of the identified alkaloids were detected for the first time in this species: trisphaeridine [2], buphanisine [3], anhydrolycorine [4], 11,12-dehydroanhydrolycorine [10], 6-methoxybuphanidrine [11], 3-O-acetylvittatine [12], buphanidrine [14], 1-O-acetyllycorine [17], 3-O-acetylpowelline [18], 6-hydroxybuphanidrine [21], 11-O-acetylambelline [22], 3-O-acetylhamayne [24], crinamidine [25] and distichamine [26]. All the alkaloids found in A. belladonna belong to the typical Amaryllidaceae alkaloid groups, including the lycorine, crinine and haemanthamine groups. 1-O-Acetylcaranine [6] was the most abundant alkaloid and the crinine group was the most represented, whilst no galanthamine-type alkaloids were detected in this plant.
Based on their structural identities, it has been possible to show how the alkaloids identified in A. belladonna could be linked biosynthetically (Figure 1). We propose that the chemical similarity of the alkaloid types from this species may be due to different combinations of common biosynthetic reactions, such as hydroxylation, hydrogenation, reduction, epoxidation, methylation, methoxylation, acetylation and allylic rearrangements, starting from a common precursor. Precedence for these reactions has been studied in other alkaloid groups; for example, indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) [26,27].
To date, galanthamine metabolization represents the most studied Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. Experiments involving the application of 13C-labelled O-methylnorbelladine to field-grown Leucojum aestivum plants indicate that galanthamine biosynthesis involves phenolic oxidative coupling of O-methylnorbelladine to a dienone, the adduct of which undergoes spontaneous conversion to N-demethylnarwedine. The latter is converted via stereoselective reduction to N-demethylgalanthamine, which is then N-methylated to galanthamine [10].
Benzylamine O-methylnorbelladine (9) was also shown to be a precursor of norpluviine (27), which is known to be integral to lycorine-type alkaloid metabolization [28]. Apart from this, the transformation of caranine (5) into lycorine (15) has been observed in both Zephyranthes candida and Clivia miniata [29,30]. In A. belladonna, it is conceivable that 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) and 1-O-acetyllycorine (17) are derived via acetylation of the C-1 hydroxy group in caranine (5) and lycorine (15), respectively. Furthermore, we suggest that lycorine (15) could be metabolized to anhydrolycorine (4) by double dehydration of the C-1 and C-2. Also, we suggest that anhydrolycorine (4) may be a precursor of 11,12-dehydroanhydrolycorine (10) by reduction of the D-ring double bond, which could then serve as a precursor to hippadine (19) via hydroxylation at C-6 and subsequent oxidation to the amide functionality.
Crinine (31) can be considered the precursor of all crinine-type alkaloids in possession of the methylenedioxy group, whilst buphanisine (3) and powelline (13) may be easily derived from crinine (31) by methylation and methoxylation reactions at C-3 and C-7, respectively. In addition, C-7 methoxylation of buphanisine (3) and/or C-3 methylation of powelline (13) are possible alternative steps in the buphanidrine (14) biosynthetic pathway. The presence of ambelline (20) and 11-acetylambelline (22) suggests a C-11 hydroxylation of buphanidrine (14) followed by an acetylation reaction. Buphanidrine (14) is a likely precursor of 6-hydroxybuphanidrine (21), which could then lead to 6-methoxybuphanidrine (11) via a methylation reaction. Also in the crinine group, it is conceivable that metabolic acetylation of powelline (13) would afford 3-O-acetylpowelline (18). Powelline (13) could also facilitate crinamidine (25) metabolization via C-2, C-3 epoxidation. This would subsequently lead to undulatine (23) by C-3 methylation, which in turn is distinguished as the precursor to distichamine (26) following allylic rearrangement. Further to this, 8-O-demethylmaritidine (7) is a plausible precursor of vittatine (8) via methylenedioxy group transformation, from which 3-O-acetylvittatine (12) may be readily accessible. The presence of 3-O-acetylhamayne (24) suggests that the structurally related alkaloids siculine (28), epivittatine (29) and hamayne (30) may also be present, but in hitherto undetectable quantities in A. belladonna.

2.2. 1-O-Acetylcaranine

The base ion signal that occurs at m/z 252 in 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) is characteristic of deacetylation at C-1 and dehydration at C-1 and C-2 (Figure 2). Herein we present the complete NMR data for 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) by both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis (see 1-O-acetylcaranine NMR spectra in Supplementary Materials). The 1H-NMR spectrum (Table 2) was similar to that of 1-O-acetylcaranine and caranine [13,31,32]. The shift of the H-1 proton signal to a lower magnetic field than that observed for caranine suggested a substitution of the hydroxyl group at C-1, which was further substantiated by the presence of a singlet at δ 1.93, indicative of an acetyl group. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed a singlet resonance signal at δ 171.0, which confirmed the presence of one carbonyl group. The COSY spectrum showed an allylic coupling between H-3 and H-4a and between H-3 and H-11, which allowed us to determine the H-10b proton location in the 1H-NMR spectrum. In addition, the small magnitude of the coupling constants between H-1 and H-10b allowed us to assign the α-orientation to the acetyl group. The two C-6 protons were differentiated as an AB system with a geminal coupling of around 14 Hz. H-4a showed NOESY correlations with both H-2α and H-6α, which turned out to be key correlations in the assignment of their orientation. Furthermore, H-12α was ascribable to a higher field as a consequence of NOESY contour correlation with H-6α. The HMBC spectrum allowed us to assign the quaternary carbons C-6a (δ 129.5) and C-10a (δ 127.8) via three-bond correlation with H-10 and H-7, respectively. The aromatic protons were ascribable to H-7 and H-10 due to three-bond HMBC correlations with C-10a and C-6a, respectively, in addition to NOESY correlations observed for the H-6/H-7 and H-1/H-10 proton pairs. The C-8 quaternary carbon (δ 146.2) was located via four-bond HMBC connectivity with both H-6, as well as via three-bond connectivity with H-10. The quaternary carbon C-9 (δ 146.5) was determined via three-bond HMBC connectivity with H-7. Finally, the singlet resonance signal at δ 139.26 was assigned to C-4, taking into account three bond connectivities to H-12β. All these data are in agreement with the structure of 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) (see Figure 4).

2.3. Buphanamine

For most crinine-type alkaloids, the molecular ion is prominent as the base peak, and the fragmentation mechanism is initiated by opening of the C-11/C-12 ethano-bridge, indicating bond cleavage at the position β to the nitrogen atom (Figure 3) [33].
The 1H-NMR data we obtained for buphanamine (16) (Table 3) differed slightly from the data available in the literature [34]. The discrepancies we noted relate to the H-4α, H-4β, H-4a, H-6α, H-6β, H-11endo, H-11exo, H-12endo and H-12exo proton resonances (Δ +0.26, +0.22, +0.36, +0.26, +0.27, +0.14, +0.20, +0.24, +0.51, respectively). These are quite downfield-shifted compared to the corresponding data we obtained in our NMR analysis (see buphanamine NMR spectra in Supplementary Materials). Quaternization of the nitrogen atom via N-oxide or salt formation is known to influence the chemical shifts of protons in its vicinity [1].
In the 1H-NMR spectrum, the coupling constants between H-1 and H-2 (J = 5.5 Hz), H-2 and H-3 (J = 10.0 Hz), H-3 and H-4α (J = 4.5 Hz), together with the geminal coupling of around 19.7 Hz between H-4α and H-4β, allowed us to place the hydroxyl group at C-1 and the double bond between C-2 and C-3. The NOE contour between H-1 and 2H-11, and the homoallylic coupling between H-1 and H-4β, confirmed the α-orientation for the hydroxyl group. Interestingly, the COSY correlation observed between H-2 and 2H-4 also confirmed the allylic coupling between these protons. The two H-6 protons were clearly differentiated as part of an AB system, each with a geminal coupling value of 17.2 Hz. The singlet aromatic proton resonance was ascribable to H-10 due to three-bond HMBC correlations with C-6a and C-10b, in addition to a NOESY correlation with H-1, allowing the aromatic methoxyl group to be placed at C-7. H-6α was assigned to a lower field via a NOESY contour correlation with H-4a (Figure 4). The H-11exo and H-12exo protons were assignable based on the large values of their respective coupling constants. The quaternary carbons C-6a and C-10a were ascribed by means of their three-bond HMBC correlations with H-10 and H-1, respectively. Finally, the singlet resonance signal at δ = 48.3 was assigned to C-10b, taking into account three-bond connectivities to H-10, H-4α and H-4β. The absolute configuration of this alkaloid was determined from the CD spectrum, wherein the curve was qualitatively similar to that of buphanamine (16) [35].

2.4. Biological Activity

The biological activity tests against the parasitic protozoa and for cytotoxicity were performed as described earlier [36]. 3-O-Acetylhamayne showed higher activity than the other alkaloids against all protozoan parasites tested. It was active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 1.51 µg mL−1), T. cruzi (IC50 = 8.25 µg mL−1), Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 17.91 µg mL−1) and Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 1.14 µg mL−1). However, the cytotoxicity against L6 cells (rat skeletal myoblasts, IC50 = 1.72 µg mL−1) highlights that 3-O-acetylhamayne is not a selective antiparasitic agent. The crude extract exhibited activity against T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 4.67 µg mL−1), T. cruzi (IC50 = 34.86 µg mL−1) and P. falciparum (IC50 = 1.17 µg mL−1), but it was less cytotoxic than 3-O-acetylhamayne. There is very little information about the structure–antiprotozoal activity relationship of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, but some results suggest that the methylenedioxy group can contribute to increase the antiprotozoal activity in these alkaloids [24]. The crude extract results suggest that A. belladonna could be an interesting source of alkaloids with antiparasitic activity. The antiprotozoal activity of A. belladonna alkaloids is summarized in Table 4.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. Plant Material

Bulbs of Amaryllis belladonna L. were collected in Canela (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) in August 2014. The first sample was authenticated by Dr. Julie H. A. Dutilh, University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, Brazil). A specimen voucher (179860) has been deposited in the Herbarium of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil).

3.2. Equipment

About 2 mg of each alkaloid extract was dissolved in 1 mL of MeOH and/or CHCl3 and injected directly into the GC–MS apparatus (Agilent Technologies 6890N coupled with MSD5975 inert XL) operating in the electron ionization (EI) mode at 70 eV. A Sapiens-X5 MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 µm) was used. The temperature gradient performed was as follows: 12 min at 100 °C, 100–180 °C at 15 °C/min, 180–300 °C at 5 °C/min and 10 min hold at 300 °C. The injector and detector temperatures were 250 and 280 °C, respectively, and the flow-rate of carrier gas (He) was 1 mL/min. A split ratio of 1:5 was applied and the injection volume was 1 µL.
1H- and 13C-NMR, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC spectra were recorded on a Varian VNMRS 500 MHz using CDCl3 as the solvent and TMS as the internal standard. Chemical shifts were reported in units of δ (ppm) and coupling constants (J) expressed in Hz. CD, UV and IR spectra were recorded on Jasco-J-810, Dinko UV2310 and Thermo Scientific Nicolet iN10 MX spectrophotometers, respectively. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR–ESI–MS) spectra were obtained on an LC/MSD-TOF (2006) mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies). Silica gel SDS chromagel 60 A CC (6–35 µm) was used for vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), and silica gel 60 F254 Macherey-Nagel for analytics and prep. Spots on chromatograms were detected under UV light (254 nm) and by Dragendorff’s reagent stain.

3.3. Extraction

Fresh bulbs (2.5 kg) of A. belladonna were dried at 40 °C for seven days. After this, the dried material (950 g) was macerated with MeOH (4 × 2 L) at room temperature for 48 h, the combined macerate was filtered and the solvent evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The bulb crude extract (105 g) was then acidified to pH 3 with diluted H2SO4 (5% v/v) and the neutral material removed with Et2O (10 × 200 mL). The aqueous solution was basified up to pH 9–10 with NH4OH (25% v/v) and extracted with n-Hexane (12 × 200 mL) to give the n-hexane extract (0.47 g), which was followed by extraction with EtOAc (15 × 200 mL) to provide the EtOAc extract (4.07 g).
The extracts were subjected to a combination of chromatographic techniques, including vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) [25] and semi-preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The general VLC procedure consisted of the use of a silica gel 60 A (6–35 µm) column with a height of 4 cm and a variable diameter according to the amount of sample (2.5 cm for 400–1000 mg; 1.5 cm for 150–400 mg). Alkaloids were eluted with n-hexane containing increasing EtOAc concentrations, followed by neat EtOAc, which was gradually enriched with MeOH (reaching a maximum concentration of 20% v/v). Fractions of 10–15 mL were collected, monitored by TLC (UV 254 nm, Dragendorff’s reagent) and combined according to their profiles. For semi-preparative TLC, silica gel 60F254 was used (20 cm × 20 cm × 0.25 mm) together with different solvent mixtures depending on each particular sample (EtOAc:MeOH, 9:1 v/v, or EtOAc:MeOH, 8:2 v/v), always in an environment saturated with ammonia. The alkaloids were each identified by GC–MS and the three known alkaloids were isolated and structurally elucidated by NMR as 1-O-acetylcaranine (362.9 mg), 3-O-acetylhamayne (2.2 mg) and buphanamine (17.2 mg).

3.4. Characterization of Compounds

1-O-Acetylcaranine (6). [ α ] D 22 −161.84 (c 0.0009, CHCl3); UV (MeOH) λmax (log ε): 290.5 (3.77), 235.5 (3.76) nm; IR (CHCl3) νmax 2888, 1726, 1505, 1487, 1487, 1450, 1376, 1238, 1033, 934, 847 cm−1; 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) and 13C-NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) see Table 2; ESI–MS data shown in Table 1; HR–ESI–MS of [M + H]+ m/z 314.1394 (calcd. for C18H20NO4, 314.1387).
Buphanamine (16). [ α ] D 22 −169.03 (c 0.0009, CHCl3); UV (MeOH) λmax (log ε): 285.0 (3.17), 207.0 (4.14) nm; CD (MeOH, 20 °C) Δε250 +1792, Δε268 −247, Δε288 +293; IR νmax 3334, 2923, 1619, 1478, 1240, 1080, 1044, 753 cm−1; 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) and 13C-NMR, 125 MHz) see Table 3; ESI–MS data shown in Table 1; HR–ESI–MS of [M + H]+ m/z 302.1385 (calcd. for C17H20NO4, 302.1387).

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials are available online.

Acknowledgments

The authors (Research Group 2014-SGR-920) thank CCiTUB and Programa CYTED (416RT0511) for technical and financial support, respectively. We thank M. Cal, S. Keller-Märki and R. Rocchetti for assistance with parasitic assays. J.A.S.Z. acknowledges CNPq (Brazil) for a research fellowship. L.R.T. is also thankful to CAPES (Coordenação de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Bolsista CAPES, Processo No. 13553135) for doctoral fellowship.

Author Contributions

Jaume Bastida designed the experiments, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Luciana R. Tallini performed the experiments, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Jean Paulo de Andrade and Marcel Kaiser performed the experiments and wrote the paper. Francesc Viladomat, Jerald J. Nair and José Angelo S. Zuanazzi wrote the paper.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bastida, J.; Lavilla, R.; Viladomat, F. Chemical and biological aspects of Narcissus alkaloids. In The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology; Cordell, G.A., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006; Volume 63, pp. 87–179. [Google Scholar]
  2. Pettit, G.R.; Gaddamidi, V.; Goswami, A.; Cragg, G.M. Antineoplastic Agents, 99. Amaryllis belladonna. J. Nat. Prod. 1984, 47, 796–801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Nair, J.J.; Van Staden, J.; Bastida, J. Cytotoxic alkaloids constituents of the Amaryllidaceae. In Studies in Natural Products Chemistry; Rahman, A.-U., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2016; Volume 49, pp. 107–156. [Google Scholar]
  4. Battersby, A.R.; Fales, H.M.; Wildman, W.C. Biosynthesis in the Amaryllidaceae. Tyrosine and norbelladine as precursors of haemanthamine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83, 4098–4099. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Barton, D.H.R.; Cohen, T. Some biogenic aspects of phenol oxidation. In Festschrift Arthur Stoll; Birkhauser, A.G., Ed.; Birkhauser: Basel, Switzerland, 1956; pp. 117–143. [Google Scholar]
  6. Berkov, S.; Bastida, J.; Sídjimova, B.; Viladomat, F.; Codina, C. Alkaloid diversity in Galanthus elwessi and Galanthus nivalis. Chem. Biodivers. 2011, 8, 115–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Berkov, S.; Georgieva, L.; Kondakova, V.; Viladomat, F.; Bastida, J.; Atanassov, A.; Codina, C. The geographic isolation of Leucojum aestivum populations leads to divergation of alkaloids biosynthesis. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2013, 47, 1065–1073. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Takos, A.M.; Rook, F. Towards a molecular understanding of the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in support of their expanding medical use. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11713–11741. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Berkov, S.; Martínez-Francés, V.; Bastida, J.; Codina, C.; Ríos, S. Evolution of alkaloids biosynthesis in the genus Narcissus. Phytochemistry 2014, 99, 95–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Eichhorn, J.; Takada, T.; Kita, Y.; Zenk, M.H. Biosynthesis of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid galanthamine. Phytochemistry 1998, 49, 1037–1047. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Maelicke, A.; Samochocki, M.; Jostock, R.; Fehrenbacher, A.; Ludwig, J.; Albuquerque, E.X.; Zerlin, M. Allosteric sensitization of nicotinic receptors by galantamine, a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Biol. Psychiatry 2001, 49, 279–288. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Kornienko, A.; Evidente, A. Chemistry, biology and medicinal potencial of narciclasine and its congeners. Chem. Rev. 2008, 108, 1982–2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Mason, L.H.; Puschett, E.R.; Wildman, W.C. Alkaloids of the Amaryllidaceae. IV. Crystalline Alkaloids of Ammocharis coranica (Ker-Gawl.) Herb., Brunsvigia rosea (Lam.) Hannibal and Two Crinum Species. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1955, 77, 1253–1256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Boit, H.-G.; Ehmke, H. Alkaloide von Nerine bowdenii, Crinum powelli, Amaryllis belladonna und Pancratium maritimum (XII. Mitteil. Uber Amaryllidaceen-Alkaloids). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 1956, 89, 2093–2097. [Google Scholar]
  15. Boit, H.-G.; Döpke, W. Alkaloids from Hippeastrum brachyandrum and Hippeastrum rutilum. Chem. Ber. 1959, 92, 2582–2584. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Willaman, J.J.; Schubert, B.G. Alkaloid-Bearing Plants and Their Contained Alkaloids; Technical Bulletin 1234; Superintendent of Documents; Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, USA, 1961.
  17. Burlingame, A.L.; Fales, H.M.; Highet, R.J. The structure of amaryllisine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1964, 86, 4976–4979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Hänsel, R.; Thober, H. Anhydrolycorinon, ein neus Alkaloid aus Amaryllis belladonna L. Arch. Pharm. 1982, 315, 767–768. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Queckenberg, O.R.; Frahm, A.W.; Muller-Doblies, D.; Muller-Doblies, U. Reinvestigation of Amaryllis belladonna. Phytochem. Anal. 1996, 7, 156–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Evidente, A.; Andolfi, A.; Abou-Donia, A.H.; Touema, S.M.; Hammoda, H.M.; Shawky, E.; Motta, A. (−)-Amarbellisine, a lycorine-type alkaloid from Amaryllis belladona L. growing in Egypt. Phytochemistry 2004, 65, 2113–2118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Wahyuni, D.S.C.; Van Kooy, F.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Verpoorte, R.; Leiss, K. The use of bio-guided fractionation to explore the use of leftover biomass in Dutch flower bulb production as allelochemicals agains weeds. Molecules 2013, 18, 4510–4525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. World Health Organization. Sustaining the Drive to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases; Second WHO Report on Neglected Tropical Diseases; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  23. Osorio, E.; Arango, G.J.; Jiménez, N.; Alzate, F.; Ruiz, G.; Gutiérrez, D.; Paco, M.A.; Giménez, A.; Robledo, S. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 111, 630–635. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Osorio, E.; Robledo, S.; Bastida, J. Alkaloids with antiprotozoal activity. In The Alkaloids Chemistry and Biology; Cordell, G.A., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008; Volume 66, pp. 113–190. [Google Scholar]
  25. Coll, J.C.; Bowden, B.F. The application of vacuum liquid chromatography to the separation of terpene mixtures. J. Nat. Prod. 1986, 49, 934–936. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Vazquez-Flota, F.; De Carolis, E.; Alarco, A.-M.; Luca, V.D. Molecular cloning and characterization of desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate dependent-dioxygenase involved in the biosynthesis of vindoline in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Plant Mol. Biol. 1997, 34, 935–948. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Giddings, L.-A.; Liscombe, D.K.; Hamilton, J.P.; Childs, K.L.; Dellapenna, D.; Buell, C.R.; O’Connor, S.E. Stereoselective hydroxylation step of alkaloids biosynthesis by a unique cytochrome P450 in Catharanthus roseus. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 16751–16757. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Kirby, G.W.; Tiwari, H.P. Phenol oxidation and biosynthesis. Part IX. The biosynthesis of norpluviine and galanthamine. J. Chem. Soc. C 1966, 676–682. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Wildman, W.C.; Heimer, N.E. Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Interconversions: The conversion of caranine to lycorine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89, 5265–5269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Fuganti, C.; Mazza, M. Stereochemistry of hydroxylation in the biosynthesis of lycorine in Clivia miniata Regel. J. Chem. Soc. 1972, 16, 936–937. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Miyakado, M.; Kato, T.; Ohno, N.; Koshimizu, K. Alkaloids of Urginea altissima and their antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora capsici. Phytochemistry 1975, 14, 2717. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Lamoral-Theys, D.; Adolfi, A.; Goietsenoven, G.V.; Cimmino, A.; Calvé, B.L.; Wauthoz, N.; Mégalizzi, V.; Gras, T.; Bruyère, C.; Dubois, J.; et al. Lycorine, the phananthridine Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, exhibits significant antitumor activity in cancer cell that display resistence to proapoptotic stimuli: An investigation of structure—Activity relationship and mechanistic insight. J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 6244–6256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Longevialle, P.; Smith, D.H.; Burlingame, A.L.; Fales, M.H.; Highet, R.J. High resolution mass spectrometry in molecular structure studies V: The fragmentation of Amaryllis alkaloids in the crinine series. Org. Mass Spectrom. 1973, 7, 401–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Sandager, M.; Nielsen, N.D.; Stafford, G.I.; Van Staden, J.; Jager, A.K. Alkaloids from Boophane disticha with affinity to the serotonin transporter in rat brain. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 98, 367–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. DeAngelis, G.G.; Wildman, W.C. Circular dichroism studies—I: A Quadrant rule for the optically active aromatic chromophore in rigid polycyclic systems. Tetrahedron 1969, 25, 5099–5112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Orhan, I.; Şener, B.; Kaiser, M.; Brun, R.; Tasdemir, D. Inhibitory activity of marine sponge-derived natural products against parasitic protozoa. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 47–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds are not available.
Figure 1. Tentative biosynthetic routes to the alkaloids of A. belladonna. * Alkaloids not identified in this plant but which could be involved in the metabolic route include norpluviine (27), siculine (28), epivittatine (29), hamayne (30) and crinine (31).
Figure 1. Tentative biosynthetic routes to the alkaloids of A. belladonna. * Alkaloids not identified in this plant but which could be involved in the metabolic route include norpluviine (27), siculine (28), epivittatine (29), hamayne (30) and crinine (31).
Molecules 22 01437 g001
Figure 2. Mass fragmentation pattern of 1-O-acetylcaranine (6).
Figure 2. Mass fragmentation pattern of 1-O-acetylcaranine (6).
Molecules 22 01437 g002
Figure 3. Mass fragmentation pattern for buphanamine (16) (adapted from [33]).
Figure 3. Mass fragmentation pattern for buphanamine (16) (adapted from [33]).
Molecules 22 01437 g003
Figure 4. Key NOESY correlations observed for 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) and buphanamine (16).
Figure 4. Key NOESY correlations observed for 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) and buphanamine (16).
Molecules 22 01437 g004
Table 1. Alkaloids identified in A. belladonna by GC–MS.
Table 1. Alkaloids identified in A. belladonna by GC–MS.
AlkaloidRIM+MS
ismine (1)2288.1257 (28)239 (20), 238 (100), 225 (7), 211 (7), 196 (9), 180 (8), 139 (8)
trisphaeridine (2)2305.0223 (100)224 (15), 222 (38), 193 (2), 164 (15), 138 (26), 111 (14)
buphanisine (3)2447.5285 (100)270 (34), 254 (34), 242 (12), 227 (24), 215 (85), 201 (23), 185 (22), 172 (22), 157 (33), 128 (33)
anhydrolycorine (4)2470.2251 (42)250 (100), 220 (3), 192 (18), 163 (3), 125 (2)
caranine (5)2560.9271 (59)270 (37), 252 (53), 240 (10), 227 (44), 226 (100), 212 (6), 181 (1)
1-O-acetylcaranine (6)2569.6313 (72)270 (3), 252 (100), 240 (9), 227 (41), 226 (97)181 (2)
8-O-demethylmaritidine (7)2575.5273 (100)256 (13), 244 (12), 230 (26), 216 (14), 201 (90), 189 (61), 175 (28), , 157 (19), 141 (11), 128 (24)
vittatine (8)2578.0271 (100)254 (11), 242 (11), 228 (22), 214 (13), 199 (58), 187 (63), 173 (24), 157 (18), 141(13), 128 (29)
O-methylnorbelladine (9)2578.5273 (-)166 (36), 137 (100), 122 (8), 94 (6)
11,12-dehydroanhydrolycorine (10)2638.1249 (59)248 (100), 218 (1),190 (26), 163 (8), 137 (1), 123 (5), 95 (13)
6-methoxylbuphanidrine (11)2656.8345 (58)330 (33), 298 (14), 287 (32), 259 (68), 227 (30), 181 (10), 145 (13)
3-O-acetylvittatine (12)2690.6313 (100)298 (1), 284 (6), 270 (27), 254 (75), 252 (61), 224 (38), 216 (60), 198 (36), 187 (36), 139 (15), 128 (33)
powelline (13)2702.7301 (100)284 (10), 272 (14), 258 (39), 244 (24), 229 (8), 217 (7), 202 (22), 187 (23), 159 (13), 143 (11), 127 (19)
buphanidrine (14)2705.2315 (100)300 (31), 284 (35), 272 (9), 260 (39), 245 (69), 228 (24), 215 (21), 202 (20), 187 (18), 130 (18)
lycorine (15)2722.0287 (18)286 (10), 268 (19), 250 (16), 238 (7), 227 (78), 226 (100), 211 (6), 147 (5), 119 (3)
buphanamine (16)2726.5301 (100)282 (21), 272 (13), 256 (22), 244 (11), 190 (7), 165 (9)
1-O-acetyllycorine (17)2754.9329 (31)268 (31), 250 (20), 227 (64), 226 (100), 211 (6), 192 (3), 167 (3), 147 (6)
3-O-acetylpowelline (18)2768.7343 (100)314 (6), 300 (25), 284 (78), 283 (24), 268 (9), 254 (21), 246 (81), 228 (39), 217 (18), 202 (6), 183 (9)
hippadine (19)2775.0263 (100)233 (2), 205 (7), 177 (24), 150 (13), 131 (9), 111 (2), 75 (7)
ambelline (20)2814.6331 (86)316 (8), 299 (44), 287 (100), 270 (33), 260 (76), 257 (58), 239 (52), 228 (20), 211 (62), 190 (39)
6-hydroxybuphanidrine (21)2828.4331 (44)314 (5), 300 (10), 282 (7), 276 (100), 261 (33), 258 (13), 243 (12), 228 (8), 217 (21), 216 (22)
11-O-acetylambelline (22)2850.2373 (100)314 (58), 313 (50), 282 (46), 258 (48), 255 (36), 254 (63), 241 (38), 240 (35), 218 (44)
undulatine (23)2855.2331 (100)316 (9), 300 (9), 286 (15), 258 (33), 244 (14), 232 (17), 217 (28), 205 (60), 189 (32), 173 (30)
3-O-acetylhamayne (24)2907.7329 (3)300 (100), 269 (6), 240 (16), 224 (8), 212 (34), 211 (14), 199 (6), 181 (54), 167 (3), 153 (18), 128 (10)
crinamidine (25)2954.3317 (59)300 (2), 288 (100), 258 (21), 244 (27), 230 (16), 217 (35), 203 (34), 189 (20), 173 (40), 145 (17)
distichamine (26)2984.3329 (100)328 (25), 314 (15), 300 (9), 286 (9), 269 (5), 256 (3), 231 (20), 204 (13), 190 (5), 130 (2)
Table 2. 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and HMBC data for 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) (500 MHz, CDCl3).
Table 2. 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and HMBC data for 1-O-acetylcaranine (6) (500 MHz, CDCl3).
PositionδC, TypeδH (J in Hz)HMBC
166.60 d5.84 br dd (4.5, 2.0)C-3, C-4a, C-10b, OCOCH3
33.55 t2.39 m
33.55 t2.64 m
3114.43 d5.39 dd (4.9, 2.4)C-4a, C-1
4139.56 s
4a61.51 d2.82 d (10.8)
57.09 t3.54 d (14.3)C-10a
57.09 t4.13 d (14.1)C-4a, C-7, C-10a
6a129.54 s
7107.34 d6.57 br sC-6, C-9, C10a
8146.24 s
9146.49 s
10105.25 d6.72 d (1.0)C-6a, C-8, C-10b
10a127.79 s
10b43.56 d2.67 m
11α28.70 t2.61 m
11β28.70 t2.61 m
12α53.83 t2.39 mC-6
12β53.83 t3.33 ddd (9.4, 4.9, 4.4)C-4, C-4a, C-6
OCH2O101.16 t5.91 d (1.5)–5.92 d (1.5)
OCOCH3171.03 q1.93 s
OCOCH321.53 q1.93 s
Table 3. 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and HMBC data of buphanamine (16) (500 MHz, CDCl3).
Table 3. 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and HMBC data of buphanamine (16) (500 MHz, CDCl3).
PositionδC, TypeδH (J in Hz)HMBC
164.5 d4.74 d (5.5)C-3, C-4a, C-10a, C-11
2125.5 d6.00 dddd (10.0, 5.5, 2.8, 1.8)C-10b
3128.9 d5.86 ddd (10.0, 4.5, 2.8)C-4a
28.2 t2.57 dddd (19.7, 8.1, 4.5, 1.9)C-2, C-10b
28.2 t1.99 dddd (19.8, 8.6, 1.1, 0.3)C-2, C-10b
4a59.2 d3.43 t (8.3)C-10a
6a117.9 s
56.9 t4.17 d (17.2)C-4a, C-7, C-10a
56.9 t3.81 d (17.2)C-4a, C-7, C-10a
7140.8 s
8133.6 s
9148.6 s
1098.0 d6.59 sC-6a, C-8, C-10b
10a137.0 s
10b48.3 s
11endo38.7 t1.85 dddd (11.9, 8.8, 3.1, 1.3)C-4a, C-10a
11exo38.7 t1.92 ddd (12.1, 10.0, 7.3)C-4a, C-10a
12endo51.4 t2.75 ddd (13.0, 8.8, 7.2)C-4a, C-6
12exo51.4 t3.40 ddd (13.0, 10.0, 3.0)C-6, C-10b
OCH2O100.7 t5.88 d (1.5)–5.89 d (1.5)C-8, C-9
OCH359.1 q3.98 sC-7
Table 4. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities of A. belladonna.
Table 4. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities of A. belladonna.
ParasiteT. b. rhodesienseT. cruziL. donovaniP. falciparumCytotoxicity
StageTrypamastigotesAmastigotesAmastigotesIEF (Intraerythrocytic)
StrainSTIB 900 (IC50 a)Tulahuen C4 LacZ (IC50 a)MHOM-ET-67/L82 (IC50 a)NF54 (IC50 a)L6 (IC50 a)
melarsoprol0.0035 b and 0.0010 c
benznidazole 0.660 b and 1.080 c
miltefosine 0.085 b and 0.091 c
chloroquine 0.002 b,c
podophyllotoxin 0.005 b and 0.007 c
1-O-acetylcaranine (6)1.9735.9>1003.2114.2
3-O-acetylhamayne (24)1.518.317.91.141.72
buphanamine (16)28.262.9>10025.9>100
crude extract4.6734.9>1001.1734.3
a all values expressed as μg mL−1; b reference value to 1-O-acetylcaranine; c reference value to buphanamine, 3-O-acetylhamayne and crude extract.
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top