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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1297; doi:10.3390/molecules22081297

Immuno-Stimulatory Peptides as a Potential Adjunct Therapy against Intra-Macrophagic Pathogens

1
i3S—Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto 4200-135, Portugal
2
IBMC—Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto 4200-135, Portugal
3
ICBAS—Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto 4050-313, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide-Based Drugs and Drug Delivery Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [251 KB, uploaded 4 August 2017]

Abstract

The treatment of infectious diseases is increasingly prone to failure due to the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural components of the innate immune system of most living organisms. Their capacity to kill microbes through multiple mechanisms makes the development of bacterial resistance less likely. Additionally, AMPs have important immunomodulatory effects, which critically contribute to their role in host defense. In this paper, we review the most recent evidence for the importance of AMPs in host defense against intracellular pathogens, particularly intra-macrophagic pathogens, such as mycobacteria. Cathelicidins and defensins are reviewed in more detail, due to the abundance of studies on these molecules. The cell-intrinsic as well as the systemic immune-related effects of the different AMPs are discussed. In the face of the strong potential emerging from the reviewed studies, the prospects for future use of AMPs as part of the therapeutic armamentarium against infectious diseases are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; host-defense peptide; infection; Mycobacterium; defensin; cathelicidin; macrophage antimicrobial peptide; host-defense peptide; infection; Mycobacterium; defensin; cathelicidin; macrophage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Silva, T.; Gomes, M.S. Immuno-Stimulatory Peptides as a Potential Adjunct Therapy against Intra-Macrophagic Pathogens. Molecules 2017, 22, 1297.

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