Next Article in Journal
Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding and Conformational Preferences of Arzanol—An Antioxidant Acylphloroglucinol
Previous Article in Journal
Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanoflower-like ZnO Photoelectrode
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1292; doi:10.3390/molecules22081292

Apigenin Impacts the Growth of the Gut Microbiota and Alters the Gene Expression of Enterococcus

1
Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, 600 E Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
2
Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
3
Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, 114 MCB Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3400 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2716 KB, uploaded 3 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Apigenin is a major dietary flavonoid with many bioactivities, widely distributed in plants. Apigenin reaches the colon region intact and interacts there with the human gut microbiota, however there is little research on how apigenin affects the gut bacteria. This study investigated the effect of pure apigenin on human gut bacteria, at both the single strain and community levels. The effect of apigenin on the single gut bacteria strains Bacteroides galacturonicus, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and Enterococcus caccae, was examined by measuring their anaerobic growth profiles. The effect of apigenin on a gut microbiota community was studied by culturing a fecal inoculum under in vitro conditions simulating the human ascending colon. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC-MS analysis quantified changes in the community structure. Single molecule RNA sequencing was used to reveal the response of Enterococcus caccae to apigenin. Enterococcus caccae was effectively inhibited by apigenin when cultured alone, however, the genus Enterococcus was enhanced when tested in a community setting. Single molecule RNA sequencing found that Enterococcus caccae responded to apigenin by up-regulating genes involved in DNA repair, stress response, cell wall synthesis, and protein folding. Taken together, these results demonstrate that apigenin affects both the growth and gene expression of Enterococcus caccae. View Full-Text
Keywords: apigenin; Enterococcus; gut microbiota; single molecule RNA sequencing apigenin; Enterococcus; gut microbiota; single molecule RNA sequencing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, M.; Firrman, J.; Zhang, L.; Arango-Argoty, G.; Tomasula, P.; Liu, L.; Xiao, W.; Yam, K. Apigenin Impacts the Growth of the Gut Microbiota and Alters the Gene Expression of Enterococcus. Molecules 2017, 22, 1292.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top