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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1240; doi:10.3390/molecules22081240

Enhanced Uptake of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a State of Inflammation

1
State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, No. 163, Xianlin Avenue, Qixia District, Nanjing 210023, China
2
School of Medicine, Nanjing University, No. 22, Hankou Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 210093, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract

Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) have been used for medical and drug applications, although the mechanisms of cellular uptake and transport need to be further evaluated under inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of Fe3O4 NPs (20, 50, 100, and 200 nm) by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions via the light scattering of flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The results of the correlation analysis indicated that the uptake ratios of Fe3O4 NPs by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions were higher than those under the control conditions. The transportation ratios of NPs by inflammatory Caco-2 cells increased almost 0.8–1.2 fold compared to the control. The internalization of the Fe3O4 NPs in Caco-2 cells was mediated by clathrin-related routes in both the control and an interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced inflammatory condition. The level of mRNA of clathrin expressed in Caco-2 cells that were stimulated by IL-1β was almost three times more than the control. Consistently with the mRNA expression, the level of protein in the clathrin was upregulated. Additionally, it was verified for the first time that the expression of clathrin was upregulated in IL-1β-stimulated Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results provided a further potential understanding about the mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs’ uptake by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; Caco-2 cell monolayers; nanoparticles; uptake inflammation; Caco-2 cell monolayers; nanoparticles; uptake
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, G.; Zhang, J.; Pan, C.; Liu, N.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, J. Enhanced Uptake of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a State of Inflammation. Molecules 2017, 22, 1240.

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