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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 899; doi:10.3390/molecules22060899

Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine

1
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 301, Beijing 100083, China
2
Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Ltd., Tianjin 300402, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul Smith and David Jeffery
Received: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [638 KB, uploaded 2 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: freeze concentration; HS-SPME-GC-MS; HPLC-MS/MS; aromatic volatiles; phenolic compounds; wine freeze concentration; HS-SPME-GC-MS; HPLC-MS/MS; aromatic volatiles; phenolic compounds; wine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, Y.-Y.; Xing, K.; Zhang, X.-X.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Li, J.-M. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine. Molecules 2017, 22, 899.

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