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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 688; doi:10.3390/molecules22050688

Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth

1,2,3,†
,
2,3,4,†
,
2,3,4
and
2,3,4,*
1
College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
2
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Northwest Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
4
College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
The first two authors contributed equally to this research.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1997 KB, uploaded 26 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; acylation; flower color; methylation; Muscari anthocyanin; acylation; flower color; methylation; Muscari
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Lou, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth. Molecules 2017, 22, 688.

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