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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2046; doi:10.3390/molecules22122046

Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products

1
Grupo de Investigacion en Polifenoles, Departament of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, E 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2
Laffort España, Polígono Txirrita Maleo 12, E 20100 Errenteria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
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Abstract

Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo grapes was also studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). Results showed that, in model systems, the addition of the enological tannin favored the formation of anthocyanin-derived pigments, such as A-type and B-type vitisins and flavanol-anthocyanin condensation products, provided that the yeast precursors were previously supplied. Moreover, model systems containing the enological tannins were darker and showed higher values of chroma at the end of the study than control ones. The higher formation of these anthocyanin-derived pigments was also observed in the red wines containing the enological tannin. Moreover, these wine also showed lower lightness (L*) values and higher chroma (C*ab) values than control wines, indicating a higher stabilization of color. View Full-Text
Keywords: enological tannin; ellagitannin; anthocyanin; anthocyanin-derived pigments; vitisins; Tempranillo red wine; red wine color; CIELAB enological tannin; ellagitannin; anthocyanin; anthocyanin-derived pigments; vitisins; Tempranillo red wine; red wine color; CIELAB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Estévez, I.; Alcalde-Eon, C.; Puente, V.; Escribano-Bailón, M.T. Enological Tannin Effect on Red Wine Color and Pigment Composition and Relevance of the Yeast Fermentation Products. Molecules 2017, 22, 2046.

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