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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1905; doi:10.3390/molecules22111905

Amaranth Protein Hydrolysates Efficiently Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

1
Nutritional Sciences, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
2
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
3
Nutrition Sciences Academic Unit, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
4
Faculty of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80199, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Peptides As A Pipeline For Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Alcalase is the enzyme of choice to release antihypertensive peptides from amaranth proteins, but the hydrolysis conditions have not been optimized yet. Furthermore, in vivo assays are needed to confirm such a hypotensive effect. Our aim was to optimize the hydrolysis of amaranth protein with alcalase and to test in vivo the hypotensive effect of the hydrolysates. A response surface analysis was carried out to optimize the hydrolysis reaction. The response variable was the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE-I) inhibition. The hydrolysis degree was determined (free alpha-amino groups measurement). The optimized hydrolysate bioavailability was assessed in the sera of mice and the hypotensive effect was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Control groups were administered captopril or water. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were: pH = 7.01, temperature = 52 °C, enzyme concentration 0.04 mU/mg, and time = 6.16 h. The optimized hydrolysate showed a 93.5% of ACE-I inhibition and a hydrolysis degree of 74.77%. After supplementation, the hydrolysate was bioavailable in mice from 5 to 60 min, and the hypotensive effect started at 4 h in spontaneously hypertensive rats (p < 0.05 vs. water group). This effect was similar to the captopril hypotensive effect for the next 3 h (p > 0.05). The use of amaranth-optimized hydrolysates as hypotensive supplements or ingredient for functional foods seems feasible. View Full-Text
Keywords: antihypertensive peptides; amaranth; ACE-I inhibition antihypertensive peptides; amaranth; ACE-I inhibition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramírez-Torres, G.; Ontiveros, N.; Lopez-Teros, V.; Ibarra-Diarte, J.A.; Reyes-Moreno, C.; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E.O.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Amaranth Protein Hydrolysates Efficiently Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Molecules 2017, 22, 1905.

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