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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1676; doi:10.3390/molecules22101676

Exploring the Degradation of Ibuprofen by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b): The New Pathway and Factors Affecting Degradation

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
2
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract

Ibuprofen is one of the most often detected pollutants in the environment, particularly at landfill sites and in wastewaters. Contamination with pharmaceuticals is often accompanied by the presence of other compounds which may influence their degradation. This work describes the new degradation pathway of ibuprofen by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b), focusing on enzymes engaged in this process. It is known that the key intermediate which transformation limits the velocity of the degradation process is hydroxyibuprofen. As the degradation rate also depends on various factors, the influence of selected heavy metals and aromatic compounds on ibuprofen degradation by the B1(2015b) strain was examined. Based on the values of non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) it was found that the toxicity of tested metals increases from Hg(II) < Cu(II) < Cd(II) < Co(II) < Cr(VI). Despite the toxic effect of metals, the biodegradation of ibuprofen was observed. The addition of Co2+ ions into the medium significantly extended the time necessary for the complete removal of ibuprofen. It was shown that Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) was able to degrade ibuprofen in the presence of phenol, benzoate, and 2-chlorophenol. Moreover, along with the removal of ibuprofen, degradation of phenol and benzoate was observed. Introduction of 4-chlorophenol into the culture completely inhibits degradation of ibuprofen. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodegradation; ibuprofen; enzymes; hydroxyibuprofen; Bacillus biodegradation; ibuprofen; enzymes; hydroxyibuprofen; Bacillus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Marchlewicz, A.; Guzik, U.; Smułek, W.; Wojcieszyńska, D. Exploring the Degradation of Ibuprofen by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b): The New Pathway and Factors Affecting Degradation. Molecules 2017, 22, 1676.

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