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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 70; doi:10.3390/molecules22010070

Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

1
Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 981991953381 Tehran, Iran
2
Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
3
CIBER: CB12/03/30038 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
4
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Domenico Montesano, 80131 Napoli, Italy
5
Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, Pavia University, Viale Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
6
Department of Medical Parasitology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, 61663335 Zabol, Iran
7
European Herbal and Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association (EHTPA), 25 Lincoln Close, GL20 5TY Tewkesbury, UK
8
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
9
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, 98615-538 Zabol, Iran
10
Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Phytomedicine Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, 340001 Akure, Nigeria
11
Departament of Biochemical and Molecular Biology, Centre of Natural Sciences and Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
12
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 981991953381,Tehran, Iran
13
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
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Abstract

Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products. View Full-Text
Keywords: isoprenoids; monoterpenes; antimicrobial activity; oral healthcare; traditional healing systems; ethnobotany isoprenoids; monoterpenes; antimicrobial activity; oral healthcare; traditional healing systems; ethnobotany
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharifi-Rad, J.; Sureda, A.; Tenore, G.C.; Daglia, M.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Valussi, M.; Tundis, R.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Loizzo, M.R.; Ademiluyi, A.O.; Sharifi-Rad, R.; Ayatollahi, S.A.; Iriti, M. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems. Molecules 2017, 22, 70.

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