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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1228; doi:10.3390/molecules21091228

Combinatorial Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal and Doxorubicin against Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells in Vitro

1
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Ya’acob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
7
School of Medical Sciences, University New South Wales, Wallace Wurth Building, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
8
Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Kuantan 26300, Pahang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2970 KB, uploaded 14 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Despite progressive research being done on drug therapy to treat breast cancer, the number of patients succumbing to the disease is still a major issue. Combinatorial treatment using different drugs and herbs to treat cancer patients is of major interest in scientists nowadays. Doxorubicin is one of the most used drugs to treat breast cancer patients. The combination of doxorubicin to other drugs such as tamoxifen has been reported. Nevertheless, the combination of doxorubicin with a natural product-derived agent has not been studied yet. Morinda citrifolia has always been sought out for its remarkable remedies. Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone that can be extracted from the roots of Morinda citrifolia is a promising compound that possesses a variety of biological properties. This study aimed to study the therapeutic effects of damnacanthal in combination with doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. Collectively, the combination of both these molecules enhanced the efficacy of induced cell death in MCF-7 as evidenced by the MTT assay, cell cycle, annexin V and expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins. The effectiveness of doxorubicin as an anti-cancer drug was increased upon addition of damnacanthal. These results could provide a promising approach to treat breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: damnacanthal; doxorubicin; MCF-7; combination damnacanthal; doxorubicin; MCF-7; combination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aziz, M.Y.A.; Abu, N.; Yeap, S.K.; Ho, W.Y.; Omar, A.R.; Ismail, N.H.; Ahmad, S.; Pirozyan, M.R.; Akhtar, N.M.; Alitheen, N.B. Combinatorial Cytotoxic Effects of Damnacanthal and Doxorubicin against Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells in Vitro. Molecules 2016, 21, 1228.

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