Next Article in Journal
Polymer-Supported Raney Nickel Catalysts for Sustainable Reduction Reactions
Next Article in Special Issue
Integrated Analysis of the Wood Oil from Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep. by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Techniques
Previous Article in Journal
Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antispasmodic Effects and Action Mechanism of Essential Oil of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray on Rabbit Ileum
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 834; doi:10.3390/molecules21070834

Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry

1,2,†
and
1,2,†,*
1
Environmental Science Interdepartmental Graduate Program, Iowa State University, 1201 Sukup Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, 4350 Elings Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Forti
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1989 KB, uploaded 25 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the “characteristic” odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural) and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R)-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal) as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species. View Full-Text
Keywords: semiochemicals; scent-markings; marking fluid; odor; Panthera tigris altaica; Siberian tiger; multidimensional GC-MS-olfactometry; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; solid-phase microextraction; volatile organic compounds semiochemicals; scent-markings; marking fluid; odor; Panthera tigris altaica; Siberian tiger; multidimensional GC-MS-olfactometry; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; solid-phase microextraction; volatile organic compounds
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Soso, S.B.; Koziel, J.A. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry. Molecules 2016, 21, 834.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top