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Molecules 2016, 21(6), 781; doi:10.3390/molecules21060781

Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins from Myrothecium roridum Induce Apoptosis of HepG-2 Cells via Caspase Activation and Disruption of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Fletcher
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4095 KB, uploaded 17 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Trichothecene mycotoxins are a type of sesquiterpenoid produced by various kinds of plantpathogenic fungi. In this study, two trichothecene toxins, namely, a novel cytotoxic epiroridin acid and a known trichothecene, mytoxin B, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Myrothecium roridum derived from the medicinal plant Pogostemon cablin. The two trichothecene mytoxins were confirmed to induce the apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by cytomorphology inspection, DNA fragmentation detection, and flow cytometry assay. The cytotoxic mechanisms of the two mycotoxins were investigated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and detection of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results showed that the two trichothecene mycotoxins induced the apoptosis of cancer cell HepG-2 via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, up-regulation of bax gene expression, down-regulation of bcl-2 gene expression, and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential of the HepG-2 cell. This study is the first to report on the cytotoxic mechanism of trichothecene mycotoxins from M. roridum. This study provides new clues for the development of attenuated trichothecene toxins in future treatment of liver cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: epiroridin acid; mytoxin B; apoptosis; caspase cascade; mitochondrial membrane potential epiroridin acid; mytoxin B; apoptosis; caspase cascade; mitochondrial membrane potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, W.; Chen, Y.; Li, H.; Zhang, W.; Liu, H.; Sun, Z.; Liu, T.; Li, S. Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins from Myrothecium roridum Induce Apoptosis of HepG-2 Cells via Caspase Activation and Disruption of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential. Molecules 2016, 21, 781.

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