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Molecules 2016, 21(6), 687; doi:10.3390/molecules21060687

Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming

1
Engineering Materials Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2
Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
3
Invibio Ltd., Thornton-Cleveleys, Lancashire FY5 4QD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chee Kai Chua, Wai Yee Yeong and Jia An
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7903 KB, uploaded 26 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA) distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyetheretherketone (PEEK); additive manufacturing (AM); extrusion freeforming; compression molding; bioactive PEEK/HA composite; porous PEEK polyetheretherketone (PEEK); additive manufacturing (AM); extrusion freeforming; compression molding; bioactive PEEK/HA composite; porous PEEK
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vaezi, M.; Black, C.; Gibbs, D.M.R.; Oreffo, R.O.C.; Brady, M.; Moshrefi-Torbati, M.; Yang, S. Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming. Molecules 2016, 21, 687.

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