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Special Issue "Biomaterials and Bioprinting"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chee Kai Chua

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.1-B2c-03b, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: geometric modelling; rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; reverse engineering; biomedical engineering design; tissue engineering; biomaterials; bioprinting
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Dr. Wai Yee Yeong

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.2-02-27, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; tissue engineering, biomaterials; 3D bioprinting; laser-material interaction; medical devices; lightweight structure and design; metal printing; qualification ad certification of AM parts.
Guest Editor
Dr. Jia An

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.1-B2c-03b, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 3D printing; bioprinting; biomaterials; polymer processing; polymer microfibers; polymer membranes; tissue engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Bioprinting is a new frontier of 3D printing technology. The process involves the incorporation of living cells or other biological elements with biomaterials for robotic and automated tissue manufacturing. Driven by innovations in 3D printable biomaterials and breakthroughs in 3D bioprinting technology, the market size of bioprinting is forecasted to reach US$ 615 million by 2024 and US$ 10 billion by 2030. In this Special Issue, we will focus on biomaterials and bioprinting.

Topics include (but not limited to) new biomaterials, bioprinting, new processes and technologies in bioprinting, improving/enhancing 3D printability of existing biomaterials, tissue spheroids, engineering and biological sciences in biomaterials, and bioprinted products, such as tissue models for drug testing, and new characterization methods of biomaterials.

Prof. Chee Kai Chua
Asst. Prof. Wai Yee Yeong
Dr. Jia An
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • biomaterial
  • nanobiomaterial
  • hydrogel
  • tissue spheroids
  • tissue model
  • bioprinting
  • biofabrication
  • biomanufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • additive manufacturing
  • rapid prototyping

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1231; doi:10.3390/molecules21091231
Received: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (143 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm
[...] Read more.
The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Functionalized Antimicrobial Composite Thin Films Printing for Stainless Steel Implant Coatings
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 740; doi:10.3390/molecules21060740
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we try to address the large interest existing nowadays in the better understanding of the interaction between microbial biofilms and metallic implants. Our aimed was to identify a new preventive strategy to control drug release, biofilm formation and contamination of
[...] Read more.
In this work we try to address the large interest existing nowadays in the better understanding of the interaction between microbial biofilms and metallic implants. Our aimed was to identify a new preventive strategy to control drug release, biofilm formation and contamination of medical devices with microbes. The transfer and printing of novel bioactive glass-polymer-antibiotic composites by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation into uniform thin films onto 316 L stainless steel substrates of the type used in implants are reported. The targets were prepared by freezing in liquid nitrogen mixtures containing polymer and antibiotic reinforced with bioglass powder. The cryogenic targets were submitted to multipulse evaporation by irradiation with an UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source. The prepared structures were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and profilometry, before and after immersion in physiological fluids. The bioactivity and the release of the antibiotic have been evaluated. We showed that the incorporated antibiotic underwent a gradually dissolution in physiological fluids thus supporting a high local treatment efficiency. Electrochemical measurements including linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coatings in physiological environments. The in vitro biocompatibility assay using the MG63 mammalian cell line revealed that the obtained nanostructured composite films are non-cytotoxic. The antimicrobial effect of the coatings was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains, usually present in implant-associated infections. An anti-biofilm activity was evidenced, stronger against E. coli than the S. aureus strain. The results proved that the applied method allows for the fabrication of implantable biomaterials which shield metal ion release and possess increased biocompatibility and resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 687; doi:10.3390/molecules21060687
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the
[...] Read more.
Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA) distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Open AccessArticle Breast Cancer Stem Cell Culture and Enrichment Using Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Scaffolds
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 537; doi:10.3390/molecules21040537
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cancer stem cell (CSC) population displays self-renewal capabilities, resistance to conventional therapies, and a tendency to post-treatment recurrence. Increasing knowledge about CSCs’ phenotype and functions is needed to investigate new therapeutic strategies against the CSC population. Here, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biocompatible polymer
[...] Read more.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) population displays self-renewal capabilities, resistance to conventional therapies, and a tendency to post-treatment recurrence. Increasing knowledge about CSCs’ phenotype and functions is needed to investigate new therapeutic strategies against the CSC population. Here, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biocompatible polymer free of toxic dye, has been used to fabricate scaffolds, solid structures suitable for 3D cancer cell culture. It has been reported that scaffold cell culture enhances the CSCs population. A RepRap BCN3D+ printer and 3 mm PCL wire were used to fabricate circular scaffolds. PCL design and fabrication parameters were first determined and then optimized considering several measurable variables of the resulting scaffolds. MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line was used to assess scaffolds adequacy for 3D cell culture. To evaluate CSC enrichment, the Mammosphere Forming Index (MFI) was performed in 2D and 3D MCF7 cultures. Results showed that the 60° scaffolds were more suitable for 3D culture than the 45° and 90° ones. Moreover, 3D culture experiments, in adherent and non-adherent conditions, showed a significant increase in MFI compared to 2D cultures (control). Thus, 3D cell culture with PCL scaffolds could be useful to improve cancer cell culture and enrich the CSCs population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Open AccessArticle A Solvent-Free Surface Suspension Melt Technique for Making Biodegradable PCL Membrane Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 386; doi:10.3390/molecules21030386
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any
[...] Read more.
In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any organic solvent. Briefly, a layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) particles is directly spread on top of water in the form of a suspension. After that, with the use of heat, the powder layer is transformed into a melted layer, and following cooling, a thin membrane is obtained. Two different sizes of PCL powder particles (100 µm and 500 µm) are used. Results show that membranes made from 100 µm powders have lower thickness, smaller pore size, smoother surface, higher value of stiffness but lower ultimate tensile load compared to membranes made from 500 µm powder. C2C12 cell culture results indicate that the membrane supports cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this novel membrane generation method holds great promise for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bioprinting and Differentiation of Stem Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1188; doi:10.3390/molecules21091188
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 3D bioprinting of stem cells directly into scaffolds offers great potential for the development of regenerative therapies; in particular for the fabrication of organ and tissue substitutes. For this to be achieved; the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable.
[...] Read more.
The 3D bioprinting of stem cells directly into scaffolds offers great potential for the development of regenerative therapies; in particular for the fabrication of organ and tissue substitutes. For this to be achieved; the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable. Bioprinting can be neutral; allowing culture conditions to trigger differentiation or alternatively; the technique can be designed to be stimulatory. Such factors as the particular bioprinting technique; bioink polymers; polymer cross-linking mechanism; bioink additives; and mechanical properties are considered. In addition; it is discussed that the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by bioprinting may lead to the remodeling and modification of the scaffold over time matching the concept of 4D bioprinting. The ability to tune bioprinting properties as an approach to fabricate stem cell bearing scaffolds and to also harness the benefits of the cells multipotency is of considerable relevance to the field of biomaterials and bioengineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Current Status of Bioinks for Micro-Extrusion-Based 3D Bioprinting
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 685; doi:10.3390/molecules21060685
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2985 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in 3D printing technologies and design have been nothing short of spectacular. Parallel to this, development of bioinks has also emerged as an active research area with almost unlimited possibilities. Many bioinks have been developed for various cells types, but bioinks
[...] Read more.
Recent developments in 3D printing technologies and design have been nothing short of spectacular. Parallel to this, development of bioinks has also emerged as an active research area with almost unlimited possibilities. Many bioinks have been developed for various cells types, but bioinks currently used for 3D printing still have challenges and limitations. Bioink development is significant due to two major objectives. The first objective is to provide growth- and function-supportive bioinks to the cells for their proper organization and eventual function and the second objective is to minimize the effect of printing on cell viability, without compromising the resolution shape and stability of the construct. Here, we will address the current status and challenges of bioinks for 3D printing of tissue constructs for in vitro and in vivo applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Open AccessReview The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 590; doi:10.3390/molecules21050590
Received: 27 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
Open AccessReview Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 539; doi:10.3390/molecules21050539
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages
[...] Read more.
It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Bioprinting)
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