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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 553; doi:10.3390/molecules21050553

Anti-Cancer Activity of Solanum nigrum (AESN) through Suppression of Mitochondrial Function and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Breast Cancer Cells

1
Department of Food Science, National Quemoy University, Quemoy 89250, Taiwan
2
Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei University Hospital, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
3
Traditioal Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
6
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
7
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medicine University Hospital, Taipei 11042, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 5 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4109 KB, uploaded 28 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Chemotherapy is the main approach for treating advanced and recurrent carcinoma, but the clinical performance of chemotherapy is limited by relatively low response rates, drug resistance, and adverse effects that severely affect the quality of life of patients. An association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemotherapy resistance has been investigated in recent studies. Our recent studies have found that the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum (AESN) is a crucial ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating various types of cancer patients and exhibits antitumor effects. We evaluated the suppression of EMT in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. The mitochondrial morphology was investigated using Mitotracker Deep-Red FM stain. Our results indicated that AESN markedly inhibited cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest mediated by activation of caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, mitochondrial fission was observed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. In addition to elevation of E-cadherin, downregulations of ZEB1, N-cadherin, and vimentin were found in AESN-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results suggested that AESN could inhibit EMT of MCF-7 breast cancer cells mediated by attenuation of mitochondrial function. AESN could be potentially beneficial in treating breast cancer cells, and may be of interest for future studies in developing integrative cancer therapy against proliferation, metastasis, and migration of breast cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum (AESN); MCF-7 breast cancer cells; apoptosis; mitochondrial fission epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum (AESN); MCF-7 breast cancer cells; apoptosis; mitochondrial fission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, Y.-J.; Tai, C.-J.; Wang, C.-W.; Choong, C.-Y.; Lee, B.-H.; Shi, Y.-C.; Tai, C.-J. Anti-Cancer Activity of Solanum nigrum (AESN) through Suppression of Mitochondrial Function and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Breast Cancer Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 553.

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