Next Article in Journal
Anti-Obesity and Hypoglycemic Effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. Extracts in High-Fat Diet C57BL/6 Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Distinguishing Astragalus mongholicus and Its Planting Soil Samples from Different Regions by ICP-AES
Previous Article in Journal
Formation and Transformation Behavior of Sodium Dehydroacetate Hydrates
Previous Article in Special Issue
Identification of Oxygenated Fatty Acid as a Side Chain of Lipo-Alkaloids in Aconitum carmichaelii by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and a Database
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 454; doi:10.3390/molecules21040454

Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

Department of Dentistry, Keelung Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 204, Taiwan
Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Tzuchi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Peitou, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Department of Chinese Internal Medicine, Keelung Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 204, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher W. K. Lam
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1821 KB, uploaded 6 April 2016]   |  


Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis; wild bitter melon; cucurbitane triterpenoid; anti-inflammation Porphyromonas gingivalis; wild bitter melon; cucurbitane triterpenoid; anti-inflammation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, T.-H.; Huang, W.-C.; Ying, H.-T.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Shen, C.-C.; Lin, Y.-K.; Tsai, P.-J. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation. Molecules 2016, 21, 454.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top