Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings
AbstractThymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco seedlings in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Both histochemical detection and in-tube assays suggested that thymol treatment blocked Cd-induced over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and loss of membrane integrity in both leaves and roots. Thymol decreased Cd-induced cell death that was indicated in vivo by propidium iodide (PI) and trypan blue, respectively. Thymol stimulated glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis by upregulating the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1) in Cd-treated seedlings, which may contribute to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative injury. In situ fluorescent detection of intracellular Cd2+ revealed that thymol significantly decreased free Cd2+ in roots, which could be explained by the thymol-stimulated GSH biosynthesis and upregulation of the expression of phyochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1). Taken together, these results suggested that thymol has great potential to trigger plant resistant responses to combat heavy metal toxicity, which may help our understanding of the mechanism for thymol-modulated cell metabolic pathways in response to environmental stimuli. View Full-Text
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Ye, X.; Ling, T.; Xue, Y.; Xu, C.; Zhou, W.; Hu, L.; Chen, J.; Shi, Z. Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings. Molecules 2016, 21, 1339.
Ye X, Ling T, Xue Y, Xu C, Zhou W, Hu L, Chen J, Shi Z. Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings. Molecules. 2016; 21(10):1339.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ye, Xiefeng; Ling, Tianxiao; Xue, Yanfeng; Xu, Cunfa; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Liangbin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi. 2016. "Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings." Molecules 21, no. 10: 1339.
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