Next Article in Journal
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method
Next Article in Special Issue
Phenolics and Polyphenolics from Melastomataceae Species
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Hydrogen-Bonding Organocatalysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Phenolic Compounds from the Roots of Rhodiola crenulata and Their Antioxidant and Inducing IFN-γ Production Activities
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15525-15549; doi:10.3390/molecules200915525

Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

1
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Food Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Richardson Centre for Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Smartpark, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Cisneros-Zevallos and Daniel Jacobo-Velazquez
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Plant Phenolics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1862 KB, uploaded 26 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05) during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%). Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05) decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05) increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread. View Full-Text
Keywords: purple wheat; bread-making; phenolic acids; anthocyanins; antioxidant activity; HPLC analysis purple wheat; bread-making; phenolic acids; anthocyanins; antioxidant activity; HPLC analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, L.; Beta, T. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains. Molecules 2015, 20, 15525-15549.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top