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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15434-15448; doi:10.3390/molecules200815434

Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake

School of Veterinary and Animal Science, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador 40170110, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Bahia, Salvador 40170110, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Piauí, Bom Jesus 6490000, Brazil
Department of Animal Science, State University of Bahia, Itapetinga 45700000, Brazil
Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Federal University of de Mato Grosso, Rondonópolis 78735636, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [697 KB, uploaded 24 August 2015]


Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherogenicity index; CLA; Elaeis guineensis; fatty acid profile; unsaturated atherogenicity index; CLA; Elaeis guineensis; fatty acid profile; unsaturated
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, R.; Faria, M.; Silva, R.; Bezerra, L.; Carvalho, G.; Pinheiro, A.; Simionato, J.; Leão, A. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake. Molecules 2015, 20, 15434-15448.

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