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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15319-15329; doi:10.3390/molecules200815319

Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages

1
Immunology and Haematology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
2
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunohematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Excellence Research Program on Healthy Aging (PIEI-ES), Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
3
Centro de Estudios en Alimentos Procesados (CEAP), CONICYT-Regional, Gore Maule R09I2001, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1028 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Acute inflammation is essential for defending the body against pathogens; however, when inflammation becomes chronic, it is harmful to the body and is part of the pathophysiology of various diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) among others. In chronic inflammation macrophages play an important role, mainly through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukin (IL)-1β, explained in part by activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling pathway which culminates in the activation of Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, an important transcription factor in the expression of these proinflammatory genes. On the other hand, the benefits on health of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables are well described. In this work, the effects of aqueous extract of tomato and ferulic acid on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS activated monocyte-derived THP-1 macrophages were investigated. In addition, using Western blot, we investigated whether the inhibition was due to the interference on activation of NF-κB. We found that both the tomato extract and ferulic acid presented inhibitory activity on the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β cytokine by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. The current results suggest that tomatoes and ferulic acid may contribute to prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; macrophages; proinflammatory cytokines; NF-κB inflammation; macrophages; proinflammatory cytokines; NF-κB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Navarrete, S.; Alarcón, M.; Palomo, I. Aqueous Extract of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Ferulic Acid Reduce the Expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-Activated Macrophages. Molecules 2015, 20, 15319-15329.

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