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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15158-15174; doi:10.3390/molecules200815158

Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

1
Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Laboratory, EMBRAPA Meio-Norte, CP 01, Teresina, PI 64049-550, Brazil
2
Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849, USA
3
National Park Service, 18001 Old Cutler Bay Rd Suite 419, Palmetto Bay, FL 33190, USA
4
Department of Zootechny, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Bom Jesus, PI 64900-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 11 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1115 KB, uploaded 19 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA). Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97) within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab. View Full-Text
Keywords: population structure; phylogeography; brachyuran crabs; sequencing; genetic diversity; control region; mtDNA population structure; phylogeography; brachyuran crabs; sequencing; genetic diversity; control region; mtDNA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amaral, M.R.X.; Albrecht, M.; McKinley, A.S.; de Carvalho, A.M.F.; Cavalcante de Sousa, S., Junior; Diniz, F.M. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic. Molecules 2015, 20, 15158-15174.

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