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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14348-14364; doi:10.3390/molecules200814348

Macrophage Activation by Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids during Mycobacterial Infection

1
Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, 11340 México City, Mexico
2
Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, CINVESTAV, Avenida Instituto Politécnico Nacional Número 2508, 07360 México City, Mexico
3
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso Número 1100, 04960 México City, Mexico
4
Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Farmacología, Avenida Cuauhtémoc Número 330, 06725 México City, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: D. Hadjipavlou-Litina
Received: 25 April 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1424 KB, uploaded 11 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acids (UA) are triterpenes that are abundant in vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. They have been described as active moieties in medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these triterpenes on macrophages infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We evaluated production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytokines (TNF-α and TGF-β) as well as expression of cell membrane receptors (TGR5 and CD36) in MTB-infected macrophages following treatment with OA and UA. Triterpenes caused reduced MTB growth in macrophages, stimulated production of NO and ROS in the early phase, stimulated TNF-α, suppressed TGF-β and caused over-expression of CD36and TGR5 receptors. Thus, our data suggest immunomodulatory properties of OA and UA on MTB infected macrophages. In conclusion, antimycobacterial effects induced by these triterpenes may be attributable to the conversion of macrophages from stage M2 (alternatively activated) to M1 (classically activated). View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; oleanolic acid; ursolic acid; triterpenes; macrophages; nitric oxide (NO); reactive oxygen species (ROS); tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); transforming growth factor (TGF-β); CD36; TGR5 tuberculosis; oleanolic acid; ursolic acid; triterpenes; macrophages; nitric oxide (NO); reactive oxygen species (ROS); tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); transforming growth factor (TGF-β); CD36; TGR5
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

López-García, S.; Castañeda-Sanchez, J.I.; Jiménez-Arellanes, A.; Domínguez-López, L.; Castro-Mussot, M.E.; Hernández-Sanchéz, J.; Luna-Herrera, J. Macrophage Activation by Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids during Mycobacterial Infection. Molecules 2015, 20, 14348-14364.

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