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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12481-12499; doi:10.3390/molecules200712481

Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

1
Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY 10031, USA
2
Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY 10023, USA
3
Division of Cancer Prevention, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide (NO) Release Chemistry)
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Abstract

Estrogen receptor negative (ER(−)) breast cancer is aggressive, responds poorly to current treatments and has a poor prognosis. The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in ER(−) tumorigenesis. Aspirin (ASA) is chemopreventive against ER(+) but not for ER(−) breast cancers. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-ASA) is a safer ASA where ASA is linked to an NO-releasing moiety through a spacer. In vitro, we investigated anti-proliferation effects of NO-ASA (para- and meta-isomers) against ER(−) breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-23, effects on NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species by standard techniques. In vivo, effects of NO-ASA were evaluated in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. p-NO-ASA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells at 24 h, the respective IC50s were 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 μM; ASA had an IC50 of >3000 μM in both cell lines. The IC50s for m-NO-ASA in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were 173 ± 15 and 185 ± 12 μM, respectively, therefore, implying p-NO-ASA as a stronger inhibitor of growth p-NO-ASA reduced cell growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and causing G0/G1 cell cycle block. Activation of NF-κB was inhibited by both isomers as demonstrated by decreases in NF-κB-DNA binding and luciferase activity at 24 h, However, m-NO-ASA produced transient effects at 3 h such as increased NF-κB-DNA-binding, increased levels of nuclear p50, even though both isomers inhibited IκB degradation. Increase in nuclear p50 by m-NO-ASA was associated with translocation of p50 in to the nucleus as observed by immunoflouresence at 3 h. NO-ASA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evidenced by overall increases in both H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) and DHE (dihydroethidium)-derived fluorescence. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-cysteine reversed the m-NO-ASA-mediated translocation of p50 in to the nucleus. In xenografts, p-NO-ASA inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation (PCNA and tumor volume), inducing apoptosis (TUNEL positive cells) and reducing NF-κB expression. Both isomers inhibit cancer cells, inhibit NF-κB pathway and induce ROS, and have potential as anticancer compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: NSAIDs; NO-NSAIDs; NF-κB; oxidative stress; breast cancer; estrogen receptor NSAIDs; NO-NSAIDs; NF-κB; oxidative stress; breast cancer; estrogen receptor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nath, N.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Rodes, D.B.; Nazarenko, A.; Kodela, R.; Kashfi, K. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo. Molecules 2015, 20, 12481-12499.

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